The Ph.D. in Urban Planning is focused on training individuals for future careers as teachers, researchers, policy-makers, and business entrepreneurs in the field of urban planning—in academia, government agencies, non-governmental organizations, and think tanks. The program equips individuals with the theoretical and methodological expertise to address important contemporary issues, such as climate change, transportation, immigration/forced migration, housing, spatial analysis, and poverty and inequality. It is a highly competitive doctoral program, accepting only three candidates each year. In consultation with faculty, candidates develop individual study programs anchored in advanced knowledge concerning the socioeconomic, political, and environmental processes that shape cities and regions, and the quality of life within them. Underlying these inquiries are questions related to the effectiveness of urban processes, and their justice, democracy, and ethics. The Ph.D. in Urban Planning is a program within the Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation (GSAPP) while the actual degree is granted by the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (GSAS).