Students and Research

James D. Graham
James dissertation image
The Psychotechnical Architect: Perception, Vocation, and the Laboratory Cultures of Modernism, 1914-1945

Technological rationalization has often been held as one of the defining characteristics of architectural modernism, as the engine of industrial modernity was fueled by a quantitative sense of Arbeitskraft through which labor power was rendered knowable, abstract, and exchangeable. But this caloric understanding of the urban worker was frequently shadowed by an interest in perceptual rationalization as well. If Taylorist empiricism implied an architecture of efficient work, where did that leave the figure of the architect? Could design and experience be rethought as kinds of work, and rendered similarly empirical? Such was the promise of Hugo Münsterberg’s invention of “psychotechnics” in 1914—a parascientific discipline that blended industrial management with perceptual psychology, creating data from phenomena and human capacities that had previously resisted quantification. Psychotechnics promised a vocational bureaucracy through which to judge not just architecture, but architects (with aspiring students finding themselves on both sides of the scientific apparatus, as researchers and as subjects of inquiry).

From its naming in 1914 through the close of the Second World War, a number of architects took interest in this since forgotten field, which held the significant possibilities for new directions in design pedagogy, architectural practice, urban planning, and more generally understanding the interface between human subjects and the spaces and systems of the industrialized city (whether communist or capitalist). In the search for a modernism beyond the formal precepts of the “modern movement,” the architectural laboratory became the central scene of action, grounding architectural production in new models of research that redefined architecture’s status as a discipline. Following a number of attempts at psychotechnical architectures through the United States, Germany, and the Soviet Union—by figures such as Hugo Münsterberg, Hanns Riedel, Hannes Meyer, Walter Moede, Nikolai Ladovsky, Pavel Rudik, Frank Gilbreth, and László Moholy-Nagy—my research traces the contours of an evolving discourse of expertise, aptitude, and spatial sensibility as the discipline of architecture remade itself on simultaneously aesthetic and political grounds.

James D. Graham is an architect and historian, with degrees from the University of Virginia, MIT, and the New School. He currently studies and teaches at Columbia University GSAPP, where he is also the Director of Publications. His dissertation, The Psychotechnical Architect: Perception, Vocation, and the Laboratory Cultures of Modernism, 1914-1945 looks at the translation of applied psychology into architectural pedagogy and practice in Germany, the Soviet Union, and the United States. His writing has appeared in Grey Room, AA Files, Manifest, and JSAH.
Hollyamber Kennedy
Cm 1 0
Sörgel’s masterplan for Atlantropa
Welt Bildend: Architectures of Security and Infrastructural Modernism in Germany and Beyond, 1848-1952

This dissertation follows several generations of German architects, engineers, planners and scientists, across Central Europe, the United States, and colonial Africa, whose work gave shape to new forms of technical expertise through involvement in internal and external colonization projects and housing programs. Borrowing a pivotal concept from Timothy Mitchell, this study argues that a new and enduring ‘rule of experts’ developed within the circuitry of certain infrastructural technologies—colonial camps, settlement commissions, housing estates, transnational networks—that shaped a modern image of the architect as an intervention-oriented planner. It explores the spatial politics of the social reform movement of the 1880s and its legislative legacy—from coercive tenancy laws, to the development of colonial infrastructure, and land-use policies—and tracks its influence on the cultural logic of avant-garde housing estates and interventionist development programs. In drawing such an arc, this study demonstrates how architectural technologies shaped an infrastructural network of European power, and reframed the relationship between the body and the state.

The chapters of this dissertation cover a wide range of episodes that span both ends of a turbulent history, from the failed democratic revolutions of 1848 in the European states, to the Berlin Congo Conference of 1885 and the establishment of the Prussian Settlement Commission, to the dissolution of the Weimar Republic in 1933, the rise of Herman Sörgel’s Atlantropa Project, and the onset of war. Following Yair Mintzker, I argue that in the era of the fully de-fortified city in nineteenth century Europe, the question of security became increasingly important to the expanding (and increasingly scientized) discipline of architecture. By the turn of the century, architectural culture in the German states had become gradually more focused on discourses of infrastructural intervention, marked by a new vocabulary of terms such as “development,” “integration,” “reform” and “intervention.” The building programs and plans that arose from this new world-building discourse had a profound impact on postwar modernization and development planning, from the Strasbourg and Marshall Plans to Desertec, which drew directly from the legacies of the PSC and Atlantropa. From the architects of the Settlement Commission to Herman Sörgel, this study traces a significant trend in aesthetic thought premised on what Markus Krajewski describes as “the colonization of the environmental remainder.”

Hollyamber Kennedy is a PhD candidate in Architectural History at Columbia University’s Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation. Kennedy holds a Double BA in Philosophy and Art History from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and an MA in Art History from Columbia University. Her research focuses on the history of modern architecture, the politics of land reform, urban design, colonial building programs and transnational infrastructural networks in Central Europe and German colonial Africa. She is the recipient of the Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst Doctoral Research Grant, the Buell Center Fellowship for Historical Research, and a Doctoral Fellowship from the German Historical Institute. Among other texts, Kennedy is the author of “Untimely Meditations and Other Modernisms: On the Glass-Dream Visions of Bruno Taut and Paul Scheerbart,” featured in Glass! Love!! Perpetual Motion!!! A Paul Scheerbart Reader (University of Chicago Press, 2014).
Andrea J. Merret
Working Title: Feminism in American Architecture, 1968-2000
My project – an examination of the impact of feminism on American architecture from the late1960s through the 1990s – explores the ferment that shook architecture during these pivotal decades. Second-wave feminism emerged out of the turmoil of the late 1950s and early 1960s, and was well established as a movement by the time women in architecture began organizing associations and conferences in early 1970s. From early concerns about improving their numbers and status in the profession, feminist architects and architecture scholars expanded the knowledge of women’s involvement in the built environment, and challenged the boundaries of the discipline. The 1990s saw a proliferation of scholarship and academic conferences which, reflecting a broader shift towards theory in architecture and feminism, took up gender and discourse analysis. Through careful archival work, supported by extensive interviews, I seek to uncover the history of the feminist movement in architecture and assess its present-day legacies.
Andrea J. Merrett is a graduate of the professional program in architecture at McGill University in Montreal, Canada, and practiced in Montreal and Dublin. She is interested in women, gender, and feminism in architecture and is writing her dissertation on the history of feminism in American architecture. Part of her work is collecting oral histories and archival material from participants in the various feminist activities of the 1970s, 1908s, and 1990s. Andrea has received support for her work from the Buell Center, Schlesinger Library, and the International Archive of Women in Architecture. She is a founding member of architeXX.
Pollyanna Rhee
California cornucopia
Designing Natural Advantages: Popular Environmental Knowledge and Visions of Development on California’s Coast, 1880 – 1930

This dissertation examines ideas of California’s natural advantages including healthy climate, geographic location, and productive lands to ask how they were utilized by real estate developers, railroad executives, and boosters who developed seaside resorts, historic neighborhoods, and city parks starting in the closing decades of the nineteenth century. Tracing the creation of these recreational spaces as a means to investigate the ways that commercial interests—as opposed to major figures of environmental thought advocating wilderness discourses or nature preservation ascendant at the same time—can lift out the ways that contrasting, though related, ideas about natural beauty, recreation, and society were articulated and put into build form. Privileging the values and actions of business and cultural elites, pitted ideas of the environment, health, and natural beauty as commodities with other commercial uses of natural landscape, which resulted in economic, racial, and social strife. Focusing on recreational landscapes, buildings, and visual material—from hotels to scenic highways to World’s Fairs—as vital technologies for articulating and stabilizing environmental ideas and visions, this dissertation highlights the uses of environmental thought as an index to political and economic powers, and the influence of capital, markets, and corporation in shaping environmental understandings and ideas of natural beauty.

cyr2101@columbia.edu Pollyanna Rhee is a PhD candidate in History and Theory of Architecture at Columbia University. Her work focuses on the relationship between architecture, environmentalism, and social thought in the twentieth-century United States with a particular interest in the ways that environmental ideas are mobilized in policy and through transformations in the built and natural environments. Her dissertation explores the conservative roots of modern environmentalism in the United States. This research has been supported by the American Society for Environmental History/National Science Foundation, the Society of Architectural Historians, and the Huntington Library.

Caitlin Blanchfield
Samuel Stewart-Halevy
Elliott Sturtevant
Ife Vanable
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Ashraf Sami Abdalla

Ashraf Abdalla holds two Master of Science degrees (CCCP & AAD) from Columbia University. Abdalla participated in the architectural symposium “Architecture and Representation: The Arab City” at the GSAPP (Fall 2014) and the CCCP’s workshop initiative “The Venice Observatory” at the 14th International Architecture Venice Biennale (2014).

Prior to pursuing an academic career, Abdalla gained professional experience working in architectural offices in both the U.S. and Egypt.

The question of architecture’s relation to socio-economic and political forces is central to Abdalla’s theoretical and historical interests. In his doctoral dissertation, Abdalla intends to examine the interrelation between the architectural, cultural, and political-economic transformations in Egypt during the 1980s and 1990s.

Óskar Arnórsson
Chris Barker
Chris Barker holds a BFA from the University of Auckland, New Zealand, and an M.Arch from GSAPP, Columbia University. Prior to entering the PhD program, Chris worked as an architect in New York and taught at the New York Institute of Technology. His research interests include advocacy planning during the 1960s and ‘70s.
Jana Beránková
Jana Beránková studied in Berlin, Paris and Prague before joining GSAPP. She received a graduate diploma of the École Normale Supérieure in Paris and M.A. at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales. Her research interests include Czechoslovak avant-garde, Karel Teige, Central European architecture, contemporary continental philosophy and theory, especially thinking of Alain Badiou. Besides that, she is active as a writer and critic.
Marta Justo Caldeira
Erik Carver
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Benedict Clouette
Benedict Clouette is an architect and writer based in New York. With Marlisa Wise, he directs Interval Projects, a non-profit for spatial design and research. He has previously worked as a architect with the Office for Metropolitan Architecture, and as a researcher with C-Lab since its founding in 2005. His essays have appeared in publications including Domus, Volume, and San Rocco, as well as exhibition catalogues for the New Museum and Elements at the 2014 Venice Biennale. He received his Masters in Architecture from Columbia University.
Christopher Ainslie Cowell
Chris Cowell is a trained architect and historian. His current research investigates the relations of representation and production in architecture and urbanism within eighteenth- and nineteenth-century British imperialism in Asia, with a particular focus on the exploits of the English East India Company in the Indian subcontinent. His particular thematic interests intersect the military, medicine and race, with the physical and planned incursions of ideology and of coercive and hegemonic power.
Laura Diamond Dixit
Laura Diamond Dixit has a Master of Architecture degree from Princeton University and a Bachelor of Arts degree from Reed College, where she studied Art History. Prior to attending Princeton she worked in the exhibitions department at the International Center of Photography and as a studio assistant for Allan Sekula. Her writing has been published in The Avery Review, Camera Austria, and Pidgin; she also has an essay in Sekula’s posthumous book Facing the Music. Her research is on migration, labor, and infrastructures in the Indian Ocean and its hinterlands.
Meredith Gaglio
Meredith Gaglio received her Bachelor and Master of Architecture I degrees from Tulane University in 2005 and a Master in Design Studies, History and Philosophy of Design, with distinction, from the Harvard Graduate School of Design in 2010. Her research concentrates on the appropriate technology movement, countercultural politics, and American architecture of the 1960s and ‘70s.
Addison McMillan Godel
Addison Godel’s research concerns the myriad, two-way relationships between architecture and its social and political contexts, with a focus on 20th century modernism. He has most recently written on the commingling of Cold War strategy, postwar monumentality, and the materiality of telecommunications in the late 1960s. Other topics have included the urban and intellectual geographies of animated cartoons, and the aspirations of American architects working in the Soviet sphere. He received an M.Arch from The Ohio State University in 2009, and bachelor’s degrees in Women’s Studies and Political Science from the University of Georgia in 2004.
Diana Martinez
Peter Minosh
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Alexandra Louise Quantrill
Jonah Rowen
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Eva Schreiner
Manuel Shvartzberg Carrió
Norihiko Tsuneishi
Aaron Bradley White

This dissertation examines relations between England’s colonization efforts of the early seventeenth century and the cultural production arising in and around the courts of James I (1603-25) and Charles I (1625-49). While both phenomena have long been acknowledged as indispensable to an understanding of seventeenth century England, relations between the two have gone largely unexamined. Historians of empire and colonization have viewed this period as one in which England turned its attention outward, seeking colonies in hopes of competing with rival Spain. In much the same way, architectural historians have viewed the period as one in which England turned away from a medieval (even a neo-medieval) past and towards the classicism of the Italian Renaissance. Two watershed events then: one economic, one cultural; both pursued by court and crown alike; both employing the built environment as medium, yet for all these similarities little attempt has been made to relate the two. Historians of England and its emerging empire have largely ignored culture, focusing instead on the political and economic consequences of colonization. While historians of culture, architectural historians among them, have ignored colonization (both in its built manifestations abroad and its influence upon so-called “high” culture), focusing instead on the cultural innovations of the court.

Through an expanded geographic scope, and a willingness to place the seemingly mundane qualities of colonial environments in dialogue with the more spectacular examples of court culture, this project seeks to bring these two phenomena into relation with one another. In doing so, it argues that England’s relation to its new world was much like its relation to the Italian Renaissance. Both were known at a distance—through books, images, and travel accounts rather than first-hand; artists were crucial to the “discovery” of both; and the acceptance and rejection of aspects of each became key elements in defining an “Englishness” made newly urgent by both discoveries. Drawing from the fields of art history, archaeology, ethnography, and media studies, I construe the built environment as a realm of contestation that not only had a hand in defining the “New World” in and for the English imaginary, but served as a medium by which to define and differentiate English civility from its colonial other.

Aaron White is a PhD candidate in Architectural History at Columbia University’s Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation. White holds an MA in Architecture from Pratt Institute, where he was awarded the Stanley Katz Award for design excellence; and a BA in Architecture from the University of Idaho. His research focuses on the history of seventeenth-century English architecture, particularly in its relation to colonization efforts in Ireland and North America. His writing has appeared in AD, CLOG, Studio, Urban Omnibus, Think Space Pamphlets, and The Building (Lars Müller, 2017). He teaches studios and seminars at Pratt Institute and the New School.

Alexander Hilton Wood
Alexander Wood is interested in the history of architecture in Europe and the United States from the 18th century to the present. His research is focused on changes in the crafts, in the role of craftsmen, and in the organization of construction in the 19th century, especially in relationship to the growth of cities, commerce, and capitalism.
Amy Zhang
Amy Zhang’s research is driven by questions of architecture’s mediation of politics, cultural techniques, modernity/coloniality, and human rights. Her dissertation project focuses on architecture in Brazil during the military dictatorship from 1964 to 1985. She holds an MA in Ethnomusicology from Columbia University and a BA in Anthropology from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Completed Dissertations

Modernity in Translation: Early Twentieth Century German-turkish Exchanges in Land Settlement and Residential Culture

Esra Akcan

This dissertation develops a theory of translation in architecture, and explores the history of cross-cultural exchanges that transformed the land settlement policies and residential culture in Germany and Turkey during the first half of the twentieth century. When a country opens itself to what is foreign, it generates processes of alteration in its political institutions and cultural forms, which transform the local norms through these encounters. By focusing on the work of immigrants, travelers, collaborating local architects and international students, I analyze how architectural movements, styles, information and technologies travel across geographical space, and how they get transformed in their new destinations. Translation is elaborated here as a field of study that develops a vocabulary to discuss various patterns of cultural encounters, and one that evaluates different experiences of the “other” in a given context. This research has led me to three intertwined legacies of translation in residential culture between Germany and Turkey, mobilized by architects and planners some of whose work received little scholarly attention: the pre-war garden city ideal, the Siedlung and the “new building” debate, and finally the discourses around national vernacular types (“German house,” “Turkish house”). It is also argued that translations are always ideologically charged and should therefore be theorized as contested contact zones that are shaped by the tensions and conflicts created by the perceived inequalities between places.

In explaining the Turkish experience, I put forward a theory of melancholy to refer to one of these tensions, and further elaborate on the concept to critically evaluate the popular prejudgment that translation is the medium where the “authenticity of the original gets lost.” This dissertation is intended as a contribution to our understanding of modernization of the world at large, as well as a contribution to our comprehension of the potentials and conflicts integral to globalization. The historical accounts of transfer and transformation recorded in this study challenge both the assertion about the “radical otherness” of the “nonwestern” countries, and their treatment as indifferent copies of the “west.” Translation studies invalidate global/local as well as western/nonwestern oppositions, emphasizing instead the intertwined histories of modernization. As such, this dissertation aspires to show how translation makes history.
The Modern Solar House: Architecture, Energy, and the Emergence of Environmentalism, 1938-1959

Daniel A. Barber

This dissertation describes the active discourse regarding solar house heating in American architectural, engineering, political, economic, and corporate contexts from the eve of World War II until the late 1950s. Interweaving these multiple narratives, the aim of the project is threefold: to document this vital discourse, to place it in the context of the history of architecture, and to trace through it the emergence of a techno-cultural environmentalism.

Experimentation in the solar house relied on the principles of modern architecture for both energy efficiency and claims to cultural relevance. A passive “solar house principle” was developed in the late 30s in the suburban houses of George Fred Keck that involved open plans and flexible roof lines, and emphasized volumetric design. Spurred by wartime concern over energy resource depletion, architectural interest in solar heating also engaged an engineering discourse; in particular, an experimental program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology led to four solar houses and a codification of its technological parameters. Attention to the MIT projects at the UN and in the Truman and Eisenhower administrations placed the solar house as a central node in an emergent network exploring the problems and possibilities of a renewable resource economy.

Further experimentation elaborated on connections between this architectural-engineering discourse and the technical assistance regimes of development assistance; here by MIT researcher Maria Telkes, who also collaborated, at different junctures, with the architects Eleanor Raymond and Aladar Olgyay. The solar house discourse was further developed as a cultural project in the 1958 competition to design a solar heated residence, “Living With the Sun,” which coalesced the diverse formal tendencies of mid-century modernism to promote the solar house as an innovation in both lifestyle and policy.

Though the examples described are not successful as either technological objects and cultural projects, the story of the modern solar house excavates a history of the present anxiety concerning the relationship between environmental and social conditions. Perhaps most cogently, the narrative reconfigures the role of architecture within such discussions, as a site for both technological innovation and for experimentation in the formation of an environmentalist culture.

State, Civil Society, Architecture: A Critique of the Representations of the Good City

Cesare Birignani

Since antiquity the term polis has captured both the idea of city as physical settlement and that of city as community/state. This thesis will explore this constituent ambivalence as it took form in the early-modern period, tracing a series of historical shifts in the way the city was envisioned in France from the reign of Louis XIV until the Revolution. I propose to study the urban imaginary of this period by comparing the figures of the city produced by architects and utopian writers to the ideas formulated under the rubric of “police science,” the theory of the government and administration of the city.

The thesis will examine two historical phenomena and their mutual relation: first, the emergence of a new “rationality” of the city, as it developed in the discourse and practices of the police, the institution that most controlled urban transformation; and second, a profound cultural change in the way the city, in both its material and political sense, was conceived. My hypothesis is that the new ideas and representations of the city that emerged in the eighteenth century involved a fundamental rearticulation of the relation between State and civil society–the police offers a critical means to understanding that rearticulation.
«età Della Macchina» Marco Zanuso’s Architecture and Industrial Design 1945-1972

Shantel Blakely

My dissertation is a study of Marco Zanuso (Milan, Italy 1916-2001). The study will show how the methodology of this architect and industrial designer, formed during the second World War and the 1950s in Milan, emphasized the engagement of current capabilities in production; inventive reuse of physical and logistical structures; and attention to social need. These themes will be explored through case studies of individual objects, including factories, domestic buildings, schools, and industrial design objects such as furniture and televisions.

Analytical comparisons to projects by contemporaries in the reconstruction mood of1945-1960 will include Milanese architects who made similar use of “béton brut” and elementary construction systems, such as Vittoriano Viganò and Figini and Pollini; and designers who shared Zanuso’s proclivities for mass design and design with roots in preexisting cultural forms and productive capacities, notably Achille and Pier Giacomo Castiglioni. The central chapters of the study seek, through these investigations, to understand Zanuso’s notion of “mass” design in architecture and design, and to compare this notion to the “machine age” idea described by Reyner Banham (1) entailing, on one hand, the application of technology to the enhancement of everyday life and invention of new forms of living; on the other hand, rejection of the formal tastes associated with “academicism” in traditional architecture. Further, the study probes the limits of this età della macchina, in particular the decline of the machine-age style in Zanuso’s work amid the twilight of the industrial development for which such projects were optimized, as industrial production and cultural structures were replaced with those of a “tertiary” economy and other post-industrial cultural manifestations in the early to mid 1970s.(1) Theory and Design in the First Machine Age (London: Architectural Press, 1960).
Forms of Function: Self-culture, Geometry, and Octagon Architecture in Antebellum America

Irene Cheng

This dissertation explores the relationship between interest in ideal architectural geometries and radical reform movements in the United States during the first half of the nineteenth century. Focusing on the example of octagon buildings, I argue that numerous antebellum Americans, from Thomas Jefferson to Orson Fowler, saw geometrically distinct architecture as a tool to cultivate new kinds of private “selves”–stronger, healthier, more rational subjectivities capable of negotiating and transforming an emergent capitalist and democratic society. Octagon architecture was imagined as a kind of private utopia—the individualistic counterpart to the era’s myriad radical communes and colonies, as well as its prisons, hospitals, and other emerging typologies for reforming human subjects. Long dismissed by most architectural historians as follies, this dissertation investigates antebellum octagon buildings as a cipher through which to unravel relationships between ideas about individual subjectivity, architecture, and radical reform at a critical period in U.S. history.

Building a Continent: Modern Architecture and the Construction of Latin America in the 1950

Patricio Del Real

My dissertation examines the idea of Latin America as a symbolic transnational territory constructed through Modern architecture in the 1950s. I start from a simple formulation: if there is a Latin-American Architecture, as manifested in countless uses of the term, there must be a “place” called Latin America. I search for this place by examining three architectural exhibitions that occurred in the 1950s: (1) the architecture section of the 1953 Bienal de São Paulo, Brazil; (2) Latin American Architecture since 1945, organized by the Museum of Modern Art, New York, in 1955, and (3) Arquitectura Panamericana, prepared by the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes, Mexico City, Mexico, in 1957. My premise is that Latin America was assembled through iconographic images of Modern architectural projects in a dynamic exchange with actual buildings. As an institutional site for the production of cultural images the museum was central to the construction of Latin America during the early years of the Cold War. I aim to challenge the now-customary confrontation between Latin America and the United States by revealing the museum as a site that facilitated two-way exchanges and negotiations by creating a cosmopolitan citizen.

Dwight Perkins Architect: Civic Representation and Social Reform in Chicago During the Progressive Era, 1893-1933

Jennifer Gray

Chicago architect Dwight Perkins was a pivotal figure in the progressive social and political reforms that were especially strong in the Midwestern United States during the opening decades of the twentieth century. He held several municipal appointments, lobbied successfully for the passage of conservation legislation, and had personal and professional connections with prominent local reformers such as Jane Addams, the founder of Hull House settlement, John Dewey, a pragmatist philosopher and pedagogue, Charles Zueblin, a leader in the City Beautiful Movement, and Jens Jensen, a landscape architect. My contention is that this milieu shared a set of socio-political ideals that revolved around the goal of fostering a mutually responsible social democracy in place of laissez faire individualism and that the realization of this goal took on architectural form through Perkins’ designs for new social centers, namely: settlement houses, public schools, playgrounds, parks and recreation facilities.

Perkins and his compatriots envisioned these spaces as loci of democratic exchange, and when grouped together they operated as a town planning formula for creating self-governing democratic communities. This dissertation seeks to explore: 1) the substance of the social reforms desired by Perkins and his fellow progressives, which touched on issues such as assimilation, the role of public education in molding citizens, the importance of group recreation and nature study in promoting democratic behavior, as well as an emphasis on health, hygiene, safety, and efficiency; 2) the way in which Perkins’ social centers institutionalized certain middle-class values, especially with regards to gender roles and economic class; 3) the way Perkins’ realized and symbolized these agendas in his architectural designs, particularly through his use of materials, his development of new plan types, and his creation of hybrid architectural forms that often incorporated historical motifs.
The Informal as a Project: Self-help Housing in Peru, 1955-1986

Helen Gyger

On the cover of its August 1963 issue, Architectural Design presented a striking view of the city of Lima, with its “barriadas” or squatter settlements squarely dominating the foreground. By juxtaposing modernist mass-housing projects with barriadas and aided self-help housing schemes, the magazine positioned these heretofore marginal practices as equally viable solutions warranting serious consideration. This dissertation examines the emergence of such projects as a solution to the provision of low-cost housing in Peru,1955-1986 . The period opens with the arrival in Peru of John F. C. Turner, whose writings advocating self-determination through the provision of self-built shelter had a significant impact internationally, and ends with Hernando de Soto’s neoliberal manifesto El otro sendero: La revolución informal, promoting the dynamism of informal housing, trade, and transport as key drivers of economic growth. The dissertation focuses on three intersecting areas: the social and political conditions which made Peru a fertile site for innovation in low-cost housing; the influences within architectural culture leading to these alternative approaches; and the context in which international development agencies came to embrace these projects in furtherance of their larger goals. In the process the dissertation aims to undertake a critical reexamination of self-help housing strategies, reassessing their potential in contemporary practice.

Wilderness Nation: Building Canada’s Railway Landscapes, 1884-1929

Elsa Lam

Central to Canadian identity is a national consciousness of inhabiting a country of vast wilderness landscapes. This thesis explores the role of the Canadian Pacific Railway in constructing these wilderness ideals during a crucial period of national expansion, economic growth, and cultural development. In alignment with federal projects of cultural nationalism, the transcontinental railway promoted land-grant sales and tourism by representing Canadian landscapes as untouched wildernesses to be at turns tamed by agriculture, preserved as scenic locales, or assimilated to a folk heritage.

Part 1 examines the railway’s ready-made farm program of1884-1889 , which envisioned the redemption of sprawling Prairie wilderness areas through agriculture. Part 2 examines a tourism program initiated in 1887, in which luxury hotels were constructed in locations seen as exhibiting the scenic properties of sublime wilderness. Part 3 examines CPR festivals initiated from1925-1929 , in which Natives were assimilated to images of untouched wilderness settings belonging to a distant past. This thesis questions how both the railway infrastructure itself and its landscapes came to be constructing as aesthetic objects, relating to landscape traditions in Europe and North America, and contributing to the conceptualization of wilderness as an integral part of cultural nationalism.
Exporting Zionism: Architectural Modernism in Israeli-african Technical Cooperation, 1958-1973*

Ayala Levin

This dissertation explores Israeli architectural and construction aid in the first decades of sub-Saharan African states independence. In the Cold War competition over development, Israel distinguished its aid by alleging a postcolonial status, similar geography, and a shared history of racial oppression to alleviate fears of neocolonial infiltration. I critically examine how Israel presented itself as a model for rapid development more applicable to African states than the West, and how the architects involved negotiated their professional practice in relation to the Israeli Foreign Ministry agendas, the African commissioners’ expectations, and the international disciplinary discourse on modern architecture. I argue that while architectural modernism was promoted in the West as the International Style, Israeli architects translated it to the African context by imbuing it with nation-building qualities such as national cohesion, labor mobilization, skill acquisition and population dispersal. Based on their labor-Zionism settler-colonial experience, as well as criticisms of the mass construction undertaken in Israel in its first decade, the architects diverged from authoritarian “high modernism” to accommodate the needs of weak governments.

Focusing on prestigious governmental and educational buildings such as the Sierra Leone parliament, Ife University in Nigeria, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Ethiopia, this study brings to the fore the performative capacities of these buildings in relation to the national and international audiences they addressed as vehicles of governance and markers of a desired modernity. In other words, this study charts the international political and economic mechanisms that facilitated these projects, and the national infrastructure they were supposed to catalyze and sustain. Cutting across North-South and East-West dichotomies, the study of this modality of transnational exchange sheds new light on processes of modernization and globalization and exposes their diverse cultural and political underpinnings.

*This research is supported by the International Dissertation Research Fellowship of the Social Science Research Council, and the Institute for Religion, Culture and Public Life at Columbia University.

An Architecture for the New Britain : The Social Vision of Cedric Price’s Fun Place and Potteries Thinkbelt

Stanley J. Mathews

This dissertation is an account of two of the most forward-thinking and socially innovative architectural projects from Britain in the 1960s: Cedric Price’s Fun Palace and Potteries Thinkbelt. Price’s architecture was a response to the changing character of postwar British society, but it also served as a catalyst for transformation. In these projects, he developed an indeterminate and socially responsive architecture which encouraged individual freedom and political agency by emphasizing participation, initiative, and improvisation.

The Fun Palace was based on a constantly varying design for a new form of leisure center. Common citizens could entertain and educate themselves by assembling their own environments using cranes and prefabricated modules in an improvisational architecture. The project suggested some of the most constructive and creative uses of free time in postwar England.

In his 1966 Potteries Thinkbelt, Price further pursued new architectural ideas in the service of the failing industrial sector and its now jobless workers. In it, he proposed the conversion of a vast area of England’s once-thriving industrial heartland into an enormous High Tech think-tank, with mobile classrooms and laboratories mounted on the rail lines, moving from place to place, from housing to library to factory to computer center. Price hoped to break down the traditional wall between “pure” and “applied” science and technology, lure the scientists back to Britain, and put the nation at the forefront of advanced technologies.

Coinciding with England’s economic and industrial decline and the disastrous period of the “brain drain,” the Fun Palace and Potteries Thinkbelt integrated concepts of technological interchangeability with social participation and improvisation as innovative and egalitarian alternatives to traditional leisure and education. At the same time, these projects suggested new models of housing, building construction, and industrial production for post-industrial society. This dissertation posits the Fun Palace and Potteries Thinkbelt as integral to the social and architectural discourses of the time, and traces the reasons why these projects have been influential on the subsequent development of architecture.

Savage Mind to Savage Machine: Techniques and Disciplines of Creativity, 1880-1985

Ginger Nolan

This project reexamines histories of modernist design by proposing to view them through a theory of “semiotic apartheids”, traces of which can first be detected in early strains of European liberal political philosophy and epistemology, eventually manifesting themselves through the putative binary of conscious versus unconscious processes of production. In the twentieth century, the categories of conscious and unconscious thought became pivotal to formulating new semiotic and aesthetic technologies, such that a peculiar association between technics and “savage thought” (the latter identified with unconscious creativity) came to underlie new methods of artistic production in Western Europe and the United States. Nolan argues that class inequalities under capitalism have been linked to the ongoing formulation of these two distinct—albeit tacit—constructs of epistemic subjectivity: one whose creative intellectual processes are believed to constitute personal property, and one whose creative intellectual processes—because these are deemed rote or unconscious—are not regarded as the property of those who wield them. This is despite the fact that the unconscious psyche or, the “Savage Mind,” was, at the same time, repeatedly invoked by modernist designers in their efforts to formulate creative technologies that tended towards digital modes of production.

CONSTRUCTED NATURES OF MODERN ARCHITECTURE IN JAPAN 1920-1940 YAMADA MAMORU, HORIGUCHI SUTEMI, AND ANTONIN RAYMOND

Ken Tadashi Oshima

This dissertation analyzes transformations in the Japanese architectural profession, focusing on both the home and the city during the pivotal interwar decades. In contrast to previous scholarship (primarily in Japanese), which isolates Japanese modern architecture from architecture in the Euro/American sphere of influence, this study traces the multi-lateral connections between Europe, the Americas and Asia. Rather than relying on a monograph, a dichotomy or an overall view, I have focused on the careers of three leading modernists in Japan: Yamada Mamoru (1894-1966), Horiguchi Sutemi (1895-1984), and Antonin Raymond (1888-1976). Their practices spanned an era of “international architecture” in which architecture became subject to rapid change world wide, not only through technological innovation but also through an exchange of information and an increase in global travel. In their distinctive ways, each architect sought to create a new architecture comprising modern forms, materials, and programs – at once responsive to the physical and social-cultural context of Japan, yet fully aware of an emerging “international” idiom. These separate careers provide a concrete means to explore several professional and personal experiences, thereby suggesting multiple ways in which modernism was configured within both local and global contexts. Although most of their works addressed in this study have been demolished and no longer exist today, this dissertation reconstructs the nature of design practice together with the materiality of structures through archival material and photographs. Seen collectively, this re-constitution affords insights into the lived and imagined experience of the interwar period, so as to provide a further foundation for our understanding of the international practices of Japanese architects today.

Empathetic Affinities, Alvar Aalto and His Milieus

Eeva-Liisa Pelkonen

Alvar Aalto’s relationships with architectural modernism can best be understood in terms of two intersecting trajectories: the large historical transformations caused by modernization (in this case, the birth of nation states on one hand and the increased internationalization of societies on the other) and the particularities of his own persona (certain restlessness and malleability). As a biography, this dissertation engages what sociologist Anthony Giddens has called the “extensionality” and “intentionality” of modernity. Aalto is examined as a subject whose actions were informed by the intellectual ideas and social situations around him as well as an agent motivated by personal preferences, calculated choices, even limitations.

The dissertation highlights that Aalto, well before he was exposed to architectural modernism, was aware that the ability to transcend national origins lies at the heart of becoming “modern.” As a consequence the relationship to his native Finland was ambivalent as increased exposure to other cultures through travel and media allowed Aalto to transform from a small-town-boy first to an aspiring cosmopolite and further to an active member in the international Modern Movement. I will acknowledge that this exposure to other cultures effected his relationship to his country of origin. The chapters, organized chronologically, will trace how Aalto addressed the relationship between national culture and international influence in his writings; how he came to represent these ideas in his buildings; how he saw his role within the international arena at different times (a cosmopolite, a mediator, an Anti-Finn, a patriot); how he was influenced by Finnish and foreign theories about the Finnish nation; and lastly, how he responded to his international reception, which often saw him in essentialist terms as a quintessentially Finnish architect. I will even argue that Aalto’s openness to other cultures was shaped and in turn shaped how Finland as a nation came to define its position within the international community.
Architecture, Technocracy, Silence: Building Discourse in Franquista Spain

María González Pendas

This dissertation examines the emergence of a distinct form of architectural culture in Spain during the Franquista regime (1939-1975), and draws connections between the modernization of architecture and the ideological and institutional evolution of the dictatorship. Throughout its thirty six year span, the fascist Sate led by Francisco Franco transitioned from a military autarky to a technocratic state of sorts, all the while retaining the ultraconservative, Catholic, and authoritarian values that were essential to its inception. Opus Dei cadres who came to control the governing and cultural apparatus of the regime led this particular process of reactionary modernization.

This dissertation reveals ways in wich buildings, architects and ideas about the built environment participated of this shifting scenario, arguing that the intersection of aesthetics and politics assumed the paradoxical discursive form of silence. If architects undermined the symbolic aspirations of their designs by means of abstraction and the formal and technical tropes proper to modernism, there was also a foreclosure of critical discourse and an emphasis on building as disciplinary domain. Through a series of analysis of buildings that remain silenced in the history of architecture—or emptied out of their ideological significance and that include the Tarragona Government Building and the National Pavilion for Expo'58—I make them speak of the politics of Franquismo, of the architecture culture they encompassed, and of the ways in which silence was instrumental to both. The apparent depoliticization of architecture by way of technological and formalist detours is hardly a local phenomenon. With Franquista Spain as case study, this dissertation adds to the lasting disciplinary debate on the role of, and ultimately the need for a critical ethos as a means of confronting the political agency of architecture.
THE AESTHETICS OF PRECISION: ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND TECHNIQUE IN THE ARCHITECTURE OF ENCLOSURE, 1946-1986

Alexandra Quantrill

This dissertation explores the paradox of precision in postwar architecture, when dissonant aesthetic desires and concerns regarding environmental regulation forced a reconciliation of material techniques with theoretical accuracy. The modern ideal of exactitude was frequently at odds with the divergent processes of building research, engineering, manufacturing, and environmental management. Suspended within the strata of newly developed curtain walls was a suddenly critical technical and architectural problem: how to achieve the kind of modulated environment implied by the highly regulated lines and taut materiality of the glazed envelope. Unlike outwardly legible structural systems, typically celebrated as modernism’s heroic force, techniques of enclosure defined modern interior atmospheres. Precision was key to demarcating the interior environment, and architects relied upon the burgeoning building products industry for research on the most advanced techniques in glazing, component assembly, solar control, sealants, air-conditioning systems, and weathering.

The dissertation is structured as four case studies of enclosure details from buildings accommodating diplomacy, industrial production, risk management, and global financial operations: the United Nations Secretariat building (1952), two factory buildings for the Cummins Engine Company (1966 and 1975), the headquarters of insurance broker Willis, Faber & Dumas (1975), and the headquarters of the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporations (1986). While the research centers on fragments of much larger building projects, the analysis of particular enclosures unfolds to address the spatial reverberations of progressive societal shifts over the period, from internationalized conceptions of architecture and statecraft following the Second World War, through western corporate growth and global expansion during the 1960s and 1970s, to the emergence of a neoliberal economic regime inflecting the formation of corporate space during the 1970s and 1980s. The details scrutinized here delineate interiors that operate as microcosms mirroring global social and economic circumstances.
Quadrante and the Politicization of Architectural Discourse in Fascist Italy

David Rifkind

Through a detailed study of the journal Quadrante and its circle of architects, critics, artists and patrons, this Ph.D. dissertation investigates the relationship between modern architecture and fascist political practices in Italy during Benito Mussolini’s regime (1922-43). Rationalism, the Italian variant of the modern movement in architecture, was at once pluralistic and authoritarian, cosmopolitan and nationalistic, politically progressive and yet fully committed to the political program of Fascism. An exhaustive study of Quadrante in its social context begins to explain the relationships between the political content of an architecture that promoted itself as the appropriate expression of fascist policies, the cultural aspirations of an architecture that drew on contemporary developments in literature and the arts, and the international function of a journal that promoted Italian modernism to the rest of Europe while simultaneously exposing Italy to key developments across the Alps.

Expo 67; Or the Architecture of Late Modernity

Inderbir Singh Riar

This dissertation explores the visionary architecture of Expo 67. In particular, the thesis studies the how the official theme of the Universal and International Exhibition - “Man and His World” - was deliberately conceived as an urbanistic ensemble, notably through its parsing into massive pavilions dedicated to fields such as “Man the Producer”, “Man the Explorer”, and “Man the Provider”. Like the nineteenth-century precedents of Paxton’s Crystal Palace or Dutert’s Galerie des Machines, the theme pavilions continued the modernizing project of world’s fairs to situate spatially the relations between “man” and his objects. Yet, taken together, the pavilions were seen as ways to thoroughly re-draw or, better, re-map the “world”; their architecture would be the ultimate medium to convey what the Expo 67 organising committee had envisioned as the first fair “opposed to both corporations and nations”. The technics of long-span construction, especially the use of space frames, was instrumental to realising this extra-national project. These structures, which included Moshe Safdie’s celebrated Habitat 67 housing complex, gave contour to a growing belief among architects in notions of “flexibility” and “indeterminacy” - concepts central to three intertwined conditions impacting the programming and realisation of Expo 67: first, a Canadian architecture culture favourably disposed to discourses of systems building and systems theory; second, an international discussion on the “megastructure”, whose viability was given proof by the architecture of the fair; and third, an emergent social context popularised as “the open society”,“post-industrial society”, or “the knowledge society”.

Inventing the Public: Modern Mass Housing and the Colonial Complex in Postwar Singapore and Hong Kong, 1949-63

Eunice Seng

The dissertation is a historical and theoretical analysis of modern mass housing in Singapore and Hong Kong after the Second World War prior to the establishment of a full-fledged public housing program. The comparative study examines the aesthetic and technological extension of the colonial apparatus in which the intersection of architects, housing design, media and politics transformed the postwar landscapes of the Asian colonial city-state. The immediate years following World War II was a period of political, economic and urban restructuring in Singapore and Hong Kong. New housing types and urban configurations were built in Singapore in response to the immediate crisis of post-war population boom and post-fire housing shortage. Designed by British architects and British-trained Straits Chinese in the Colonial Office, the new housing types paralleled the public housing experiments in the west. During this transitional period, housing provision revealed developments in the notion of the public, the public sector and public space in the two crown colonies, despite adopting different philosophies, approaches and planning practices in their public housing programs from the 1960s. From the onset, the modern housing estate was imbued with British social ideals - propagated by figures like Ebenezer Howard and Patrick Abercrombie - such as an undifferentiated mass population with a collective public life who would enjoy the public provision of green open spaces and amenities. The modern flat embodied imported notions of civility and public behavior. Never before were the predominantly Chinese population so visibly housed and the divisions between their public and private lives so clearly delineated. Heralded in governmental annual reports and professional publications like the RIBA journal and Far East Builder as testimonials to the continuing dominion of the Empire, modern mass housing bore economic, technological as well as political import for the colonial governments and the succeeding local governments. Educating the populace on the spaces and objects in the modern home and the appropriate conduct of modern living became a parallel project to resettlement and town planning. Apropos, this dissertation will also offer a cross-cultural perspective on the development and deployment of modern mass housing from the machine aesthetic of the first freestanding block to the first housing estates in these cities and how developments in the sphere of public housing provision realigned social relations and the collective identity of a largely immigrant population.

From the onset, the modern housing estate was imbued with British social ideals - propagated by figures like Ebenezer Howard and Patrick Abercrombie - such as an undifferentiated mass population with a collective public life who would enjoy the public provision of green open spaces and amenities. The modern flat embodied imported notions of civility and public behavior. Never before were the predominantly Chinese population so visibly housed and the divisions between their public and private lives so clearly delineated. Heralded in governmental annual reports and professional publications like the RIBA journal and Far East Builder as testimonials to the continuing dominion of the Empire, modern mass housing bore economic, technological as well as political import for the colonial governments and the succeeding local governments. Educating the populace on the spaces and objects in the modern home and the appropriate conduct of modern living became a parallel project to resettlement and town planning. Apropos, this dissertation will also offer a cross-cultural perspective on the development and deployment of modern mass housing from the machine aesthetic of the first freestanding block to the first housing estates in these cities and how developments in the sphere of public housing provision realigned social relations and the collective identity of a largely immigrant population.
ORGANIZATION AND ABSTRACTION: THE ARCHITECTURE OF SOM FROM 1936 TO 1956

Hyun Tae Jung

How did a large-scale architectural practice begin and become successful in the United States in the mid-twentieth century? By investigating, at once historically and iconographically, the firm of SOM (Skidmore, Owings & Merrill), the dissertation explores the trajectory of ‘corporate architecture.’ It focuses on the firm’s early history from 1936 to 1956, during which SOM grew from a small design firm to a large architecture-engineering firm.

SOM went through drastic transformations in organization and design in its early years. In the late 1930s, the small architecture office was highly influenced by industrial design. During World War II at the town of Oak Ridge, TN, for the Manhattan Project, the firm fully employed modern design idioms and developed a new organizational structure drawn from collaboration with the ‘military-industrial complex.’ After the war, the firm became known as both the dominant producer of corporate architecture and an efficient organizer of large-scale projects.

Over the years, SOM has had a critical impact on the prosperity and the dominance of modern architecture in America. However, a critical analysis of its history has not been done. The dissertation illustrates how by combining flexible organizational structures with an efficient design production, SOM was able to produce post-war office spaces that were repetitive yet organic.

The Itinerant Red Bauhaus, or the Third Emigration

Daniel Talesnik

This dissertation, The Itinerant Red Bauhaus, or the Third Emigration, addresses a movement of architects from Europe to the Soviet Union during the interwar period. These architects (who include Hannes Meyer and Ernst May and their respective brigades) mostly relocated before the war, and many returned to Europe after the war. This larger frame helps to situate the specific group of architecture students from the German Bauhaus who followed Meyer to the Soviet Union in 1930 after he was expelled from the directorship of the Bauhaus: the Red Bauhaus Brigade. Driven by collectivist ideology, Meyer and his short-lived brigade staged an itinerant extension of the interrupted ‘second’ Bauhaus. Part of the research focuses on Meyer’s pedagogical project in order to unfold the education received by the students and understand the evolution of their architectural ideas after they moved to the Soviet Union. The dissertation concludes in the postwar period in the countries where the Brigade members Tibor Weiner, Konrad Püschel, Philipp Tolziner, and René Mensch were independently active as designers, city planners, teachers, polemicists, and political activists. Their distinct professional approaches can be read against their Bauhaus origins and Soviet experience, but are not reducible to them. Shifting the focus from Meyer to his students allows the foregrounding of the point of view of these secondary characters, activating a new reading of the period studied and an in-depth evaluation of an overlooked Bauhaus legacy.

Urbanization and the Emergence of the Polykatoikìa. Habitat and Identity, Athens 1830-1974

Ioanna Theocharopoulou

Athenians are very proud of their city’s long heritage. At the same time they feel enormously negative about the urban development of the first half of the twentieth century, characterized by the polykatoikìa (poly = multi, katoikia= dwelling), the most ubiquitous local building type, and a blind spot in Greek architectural history. The proliferation of this housing type in the twentieth century, a direct result of the influx of internal migrants and the urgent need of shelter, has been endlessly criticized for being haphazard, unsightly and the cause of urban chaos. This dissertation situates the success of polykatoikìa urbanism within architectural history and explores it as an expression of a wider set of cultural, social, and political events that marked Greek history from the inception of the modern state to the late twentieth century. As the polykatoikìa was produced without much involvement by architects or planners, this dissertation had to construct a methodology or an approach towards marginally legal or informal development. This approach included bringing together insights from architecture, anthropology, cultural and gender studies, literature and cinema, and thinking about the ambiguities and cross-overs between Architecture-as-Art, craft processes and the local reception and appropriation of Modern Architecture against older patterns of building. The study of Athenian informal development raises the question of how to study non-architect-designed buildings and artifacts, a question that architectural history needs to open up more broadly.

FACTS AND ARTIFACTS : OTTO NEURATH AND THE SOCIAL SCIENCE OF SOCIALIZATION

Nader Vossoughian

This dissertation traces the career of Otto Neurath (1882–1945), a Viennese intellectual who played a central role in establishing two key movements in European philosophy, the Vienna Circle and the United of Science movement, both of which rejected metaphysics and embraced empirical science. Neurath himself abhorred speculative thinking in all its cultural and social guises and spent his life trying to put his philosophy into practice. Although he is typically regarded as a philosopher of knowledge and innovator in graphic design, he pursued a range of careers that gave expression to his theoretical concerns. Between 1917 and 1940, he helped organize countless museums and exhibitions in over a dozen countries, and between 1921 and 1925 he was a leading housing officer in socialist Vienna. He brought to bear on these appointments his Austro-Marxian brand of empiricism, which was heavily utilitarian and anti-Idealist in outlook.

As a housing director, Neurath had nothing but disdain for priceless artifacts and rare artistic collections. He thought that they absorbed the subject’s attention without stimulating his or her intellect; they fetishized the “spectacle value” of objects at the expense of being socially informative. As a housing advocate and city planner, meanwhile, Neurath was an ardent critic of picturesque and Baroque planning schemes and a foe of both laissez-faire urbanism and anti-city utopianism. He believed that overly concentrated urban development bred disease and inequality, while its inverse harmed worker productivity. Most of all, he detested Beaux-Arts and Sittesque urban planning on account of the priority they gave to aesthetics, beauty, and “good taste.

Neurath’s approach to solving urban and museological issues, I argue, consisted in organizing his thoughts around facts rather than artifacts. Facts, he contended, are interconnected—they’re governed by rules rather than exceptions. Artifacts, on the other hand, project the illusion of autonomy; like the "curiosity cabinets” of the 17th century, they are defined by their relative uniqueness or singularity. They pique the imagination, he contended, but they also breed irrationalism—an escape into disorder.

For Neurath, extinguishing this “auratic” urge was central to the project of installing a truly rational culture. In the area of museum administration, I explore in my thesis how Neurath pioneered the use of mechanically reproducible media—photographs, lantern slides, graphic diagrams, and the like. Most famously, he invented a language of pictoral communication known as the International System of Typographic Picture Education (“Isotype”), whose hieroglyphic signs are all but ubiquitous in today’s airports, restrooms, and city streets. In the realm of city planning, Neurath was one of the earliest advocates of standardized mass housing. He developed innovative schemes for rationalizing the production of agrarian settlements and organizing and educating building cooperatives. He was instrumental to the careers of countless Neue Sachlichkeit modernists, including Margarete Schutte-Lihotzky, Le Corbusier, Josef Frank, and Cornelis van Eesteren, and carried on an extensive correspondence with the sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies.

In the dissertation, I conclude by critically considering the contradictions and tensions implicit to Neurath’s cultural and urbanistic philosophy. I suggest that his example does not simply reflect the musings of an isolated historical figure, but are emblematic of the holistic aspirations of Enlightenment reason.

Modernization, National Image and Ideology: Architectural History in China from the Turn of the Twentieth Century to 1953

Min-Ying Wang

The Confucian metaphysical philosophy devalued material artifacts, as a result, architecture was not traditionally seen as a scholarly field. Architectural study as an academic discipline only began as a formal discipline in the last decades of the Qing dynasty (1644-1911) when it was introduced by westerners. Since then, Chinese scholars have produced a significant body of architectural history which has helped to shape the way that Chinese people think of architecture. Given the influence and importance of these texts, a thorough account of the historiography of these works is necessary, but has yet to be done-either in English or in Chinese. The objective of this analytical study is therefore to cover the writings of the most important architectural historians that worked during the first stage of the discipline’s development in China from both within China and beyond.

Noting that the asynchronous modernization was an unspoken factor acting on all of these architectural histories, this dissertation examines the texts with a specific interest in the nationalistic ideology under-pinning their interpretation of architectural images both traditional and modern. Five types of architectural historians who were involved in the formation of this discipline are examined. They are: western sinologists including John Calvin Ferguson (1866-1945), Walter Perceval Yetts (1878- 1957), Osvald Sirén (1879-1966), Carroll Brown Malone (1886-1973), Paul Demiéville (1894-1979), Gustav Ecke (1896-1971), etc.; progressive Chinese intellectuals Yue Jiazao (1868-1944), Zhu Qiqian (1872-1964) and their fellows of the Society for Research in Chinese Architecture (1930-1945); culturally conservative architectural professionals trained abroad, represented by Liang Sicheng (1901-1972) and Lin Huiyin (1904-1955); architectural modernists, among them the most insightful was probably Tong Jun (1900-1983); and socialist writers Hu Man (1904-1986) and Feng Zikai (1898-1975).

It is found that the historians stated above actually interweaved native learning skills and architectural history, a discipline originated from the West, to fulfill the need for a national identity caused by the asynchronous modernization. This is particularly embodied in the methodologies and historical styles that they remodeled. Contrary to most prevailing post-colonial theories, their methodologies and historical styles exemplify a positive and confident local response to foreign input. By scrutinizing these historical texts, this dissertation provides a new perspective on the early history of global architecture.

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