Advanced Architecture Studio IV
The Advanced Architecture Studio IV framework looks at the varied scales of the environment through the lens of a specific geographic context. During the Spring 2021 semester all studios, with the exception of Caribbean Reconnections studio, focused on the “rural” geography of upstate New York, unpacking its environmental and religious history and its relationship to the city of New York.
Each of the eight studios defined a unique set of territorial boundaries and sites, resulting in a range of investigations that reconsidered the relationship between architecture and “nature.” The studios examined and speculated on: agriculture and food production sites; extractive, infrastructural, and logistical sites; lumber forests; State and national parks; man-made and natural bodies of water; Native American reservations; and settlements formed by intentional communities.
This year, Adv. IV also addressed the questions of religiosity in the construction of the rural/urban divide by critically unpacking the history of the territorial distribution, self-organization, and settlement patterns of early European religious communities in the North-Eastern United States. This framework offered the studios the opportunity to uncover and advance the rituals and spatial practices of ‘indigenous’ populations and other minority groups as potential models of resistance to an increasingly commodified and fragmented countryside.
Students engaged in rigorous quantitative and qualitative research, while also engaging directly with the representatives of several minority communities throughout the semester. This research entailed mapping exercises, experimentation with renewable materials and construction methods, testing innovative remediation strategies, manipulating topographic terrain, exploring water flows and water holdings strategies, studying the impact of seasonal cycles on built forms, and challenged students to pursue design strategies that operated at multiple scales. A concurrently held lecture series hosted a wide range of experts, including representatives of and scholars from Native American tribes, to complement the students’ body of knowledge.
Despite the strenuous circumstances of COVID-19 and their impact on the students and faculty, the work continued to be rigorous, intelligent, and daring. Touching on issues of social organization, biocultural heritage, environmental racism, and questions of the sacred and the profane, the ‘rural’ became an incubator for communal spiritual formation and care, and for environmental stewardship.
The studio Dark Rurality: Blackness, Sacredness, and Landedness in the Hudson Valley interrogates the African American presence in the Hudson Valley both past, present, and future as an inspiration and impetus for developing new spatial, aesthetic, and communal practices. Students’ work engages the Blackness not only as a racial group or identity but as the aesthetics of, attitude, and positionality towards Land/Landedness, grounded in practices and traditions which conflate the sacred and the everyday. This agitating of the sacred and everyday binary opens up new approaches to form, program, and modes of practice.
Students: Agnes Anggada, Henry Black, Takashi Honzawa, Meissane Kouassi, Stephanie McMorran, Danielle Nir, Charul Punia, Keneilwe Ramaphosa, Jordan Readyhough, Lucia Song, Kylie Walker
Another Americana centers around three core considerations as it approaches a new imaginary through the lens of dark rurality: Black movement, re-association with the land, and the sacredness of black joy. The project acknowledges the cultural wealth of African American culture that has grown over the last 400 years and explores African American recreation. Despite ancestral trauma, African Americans have found many ways to resist dehumanization. The project looks at recreational and cultural activities—such as music, crafts, dancing, and food—to draw on for inspiration for a new imaginary of Black rural life in the Hudson Valley. The project hones in a very specific mode of recreation for its significance in Black culture and expression in America: roller skating. Working with the existing structures on the site, the program starts with the entrance to the complex, the main plaza with a pavilion, an indoor rink, outdoor roller rink paths, a greenhouse, and on-site residences. The scheme of the roller rink areas takes advantage of the site’s rural location and moves away from the typical hyper-interiority of a skating rink.
The Continuum of Farming, Stewardship, and Spirituality is a sequence of multi-purpose spaces that exist along a 1.5-mile circular path connecting four farms, a monastery, and a community center in the Hudson Valley of New York. Acknowledging the breadth of programs that exist on-site, the project seeks to provide a platform on which the three programs of farming, stewardship, and spirituality can hybridize to bring about a spatial and institutional model that introduces new modes of practice between existing stakeholders. The programmatic hybridity is translated through a combined architectural language of wood, corten steel, and rammed earth along the sequence of spaces.
Forgotten Infrastructures counters the idea of a virgin landscape to reassign value in the land s...
Reconstructed Feminine: Reparations in Hudson
This studio reimagines ancestral practices in order to challenge colonial architecture and its ae...
The Everyday Sacred
The Everyday Sacred creates sacred spaces for ancestral devotion through the development of an ae...
Rural Havens considers the concepts of fugitivity and the movement of Black people through the ru...
The Seed Commons aims to support the Northeast Farmers of Color Land Trust in their efforts towar...
Ancestral rituals, transmission, movement, reappropriation…How to create an architecture that echoes to our past while looking toward the future?
Through the design of a lodge for a Black-owned family farm in upstate New York, this project explores the relationship between modes of language and modes of building. It relates ancestral ideas of movement and cultural transmission through sacred practices with the goal of investigating architecture through other forms of knowledge so as to produce a new type of architecture.
The studio Designing for “Normal": Dual Futures of Rural Vaccination Centers explored the concept of dual futures that involve designing two building programs that transform from one to the other. Often, an intended program will be outlasted by the building itself, raising questions about how we define architectural completion. Can designing for a state of continuous incompletion become a final architectural act? As the US faces simultaneous crises of a global health pandemic, racial inequality, and climate change, one asks the question: when is architecture ever truly “complete”? Designing for incomplete yet adaptable architecture mobilizes design to address necessary changes in the built environment. The studio’s near future is a rural vaccination center that transforms into a community program in the distant future. Designing for the interim—between one phase and another—requires scenario-based design thinking that addresses both current needs and long-term goals.
Students: Andres Alvarez Davila, Karen Wan Jia Chen, Adeline Chum, Gizem Karagoz, Jules Kleitman, Yang Lu, Karan Matta, Zakios Meghrouni-Brown, Aditi Mangesh Shetye, Peicong Zhang, Hao Zheng, Hao Zhong
Restore & Rewild aims to look closely at the needs of each town and strengthen the community in three steps: resiliency through health, security through food and nutrition, and sustainability through secure livelihood and land. In Ellenville, this includes focusing on at-risk youth and young adults who are looking to further their education and gain the skills to participate within the larger community. Our project, located on what used to be a metal manufacturing facility’s concrete pad, begins as a rapid deployment of several vaccination centers and a series of phytoremediation strategies as a way to begin to restore the health of both the community and the land. By planting within the existing exposed column grid of the previous facility and strategically scoring lines for additional plant growth, within the year there will be a natural disintegration of the concrete allowing for smaller blocks to be repurposed or removed from the site. The project will continue to expand across our site sitting within the remediation process to include programs of urgent care, housing, green career training, and in the distant future a small scale timber manufacturing facility.
A Cannabis Commune calls for an expansive process of vaccination, remediation, construction, cultivation, and rewilding. It is an alternative to current modes of production, including those in the nascent cannabis industry, which has largely followed existing paradigms in big pharma. The project accomplishes this in two principal ways: first, by remediating the ruins of the former IBM campus in Kingston; second, by allowing minority populations affected by the “war on drugs” active participation in the ethical production of cannabis. The remediation processes that accompany this provide the building blocks for the resulting landscape and earthenwork architecture. In the short run, the future cannabis commune serves as a vaccination center, building trust with marginalized communities. In the long run, the proposed model becomes a generator of justice and an ecologically productive part of the environment, inherently limited in space by the connes of past industry and temporally by natural cycles of healing and growth.
The Open Dairy
Upper State New York is a major dairy region where milk production takes up half of total agricul...
Long Box and Artificial Landscape
The project explores the relationship of film and architecture, using the concepts of moving shot...
The Trellis is an open structural framework that creates an inseparable triangle between human, a...
Sanctuaries, R/Urban Ecologies III
The third iteration of R/Urban Ecologies studio, “Sanctuaries” interrogates the multitudinous notions of the term and their socio-political and spatial architecture within the r/urban territory. Originated from the religio-political zone of “sanctuarium,” the contemporary term sanctuary came to at once mean the zone of exception and escape, and the ground of generosity and nurture. The Hudson Valley, like many metropolitan hinterlands today, could be construed as a territory of co-existing yet divergent sanctuaries reflecting this conflation. Hosting the spaces of privileged leisure and the resolute yet invisiblized immigrant population and migrant workers at once, and simultaneously populated by cherished ecological preserves, violated Native American sacred grounds, and the locations of pardoned impunity afforded for multinational corporate polluters, the Hudson Valley and the parallel and multiple realities of its “sanctuaries’‘ lend an effective lens to interrogate and challenge the extractive legacy of colonization, and the subjection of nature and other “others.” The studio aims to investigate possibilities of the new architecture of sanctuaries, interrogating the ideologies of care, sanctity, and their often hardened enclosures.
Students: Ryan Alexander, Nayef Alsabhan, Livia Calari, Jui Yu Lin, Minghan Lin, Shuhan Lin, Camille Newton, Hannah Stollery, John Trujillo, Adam Vosburgh, Muyu Wu, Duo Xu
This proposal is located in Newburgh, a city with the highest number of undocumented immigrants in New York. It proposes a new type of campus dotted across the city. Informed by both the immigrants’ main professions and the needs of the city, Sanctuary Campus comprises four interventions of diverse purposes and functions, which aim to serve both the immigrant community as well as gradually transform Newburgh together. The School of Urban Agriculture and Construction utilizes the vacant and abandoned plots and reoccupies spaces through new programs while renovating and reinforcing the derelict buildings through a new timber gridded structure. The Center of Health and Childcare transforms an underutilized parking lot connected to an adjacent hospital and integrates new health-related programs. Hovering above the city court, the School of Law and Journalism aims to empower the immigrant community through the education of immigration law as well as offer opportunities for intentional exposure, such as law consultation, protests, and media propagation. As an expansion of the basement and south wing of a Catholic church, the extension includes a mutual aid kitchen, community-run restaurant, and a language center, which caters for the insufficient spaces of the church and provides new spaces for communal collaboration.
Land in the Hudson Valley has oscillated between being commodified as timber forests and farms, used for either monoculture crop production or clearcut logging. This project overlaps the conditions of forest and farm to create a biodiverse, mixed-use landscape. Using mycoforestry on the corn fields on our site, the depleted soil is replenished and the site becomes a rich forest that is both a refuge and a laboratory. Initially, tree species are planted along a grid, so that the forest health can be studied through a series of monitoring stations that also serve as field classrooms for forestry students. As the trees reach maturity and the boundaries between the forest patches begin to blur, the environment becomes a vibrant multispecies host. During this period, the mycelium-enriched soil will produce fields of mushrooms that can be foraged, alongside other foragable crops that exist symbiotically with the forest. A path runs through the site, connecting a processing center, field classrooms, a mycology center, and growing fields. On this test site, the activities of the forest and farm can play out as concurrent, harmonious events that change our perception of what a human-influenced, living landscape can be.
Situated between the towns of Athens and Coxsackie in Greene County, the Flint Mine Solar Power P...
Tahawus Extraction Trail
Tahawus is a former iron and titanium mine located in Adirondacks Mountain, Hudson Valley, abando...
Black Dirt Sanctuaries
The Black Dirt region in Orange County, New York has some of the most fertile soil in the United ...
Furgary Habitat Research Center
Our research focuses on the artificiality of nature and the systems behind it. Systems like fi...
The scope for the studio In the Name of GOD: An Investigation into a Rural Religious Settlement, NY consists of an investigation of the architectural and programmatic capacity of the forms of rural settlement developed by religious communities in Upstate New York. The aim is twofold: (1) To map and study the physical architectural and territorial typologies of rural religious settlements. In the context of the studio, these settlements are understood as exemplars of a type of ‘intentional community’ and as offering a potential form of resistance to the increasingly commodified and fragmented territories of the countryside. (2) To identify and propose physical interventions (alter, transform, expand, re-program, etc.) for Islamberg, a specific religious Muslim community hamlet located in Upstate New York. These interventions were proposed only after having first critically unpacked Islamberg’s historical evolution and probing the hamlet’s architectural and territorial relationships to its environment (geological, topographical, post-industrial, infrastructural, socio-political). This initial phase is undertaken in conversation and through collaboration with the community itself.
Students: Aya Abdallah, Sixuan Chen, Max Goldner, Alexa Greene, Chuqi Huang, Jean Kim, Yi Liang, Andrew Magnus, Reem Makkawi, Nash Taylor, Hazel Villena, Yue Zhou
This project looks at transforming the micro-watershed in Islamberg, a rural Muslim settlement, through incremental deconstruction and rebuilding of local housing. Around the town, the current use of water is contested. New York City claims much of the available water, and plans to buy much more land to keep its holds secure. Inside the town, water threats are more acute. Poor infrastructure leads to flooded roads, impassable valleys, and long, isolating winters. The story is two-fold: building and ground inherited different logics from material reuse and watershed analysis. At the building scale, existing mobile homes reach the end of their life and salvageable materials are stored at and circulated through a new “material bank” bridge. At the ground scale, the proposed diamond shape ground collects rain water and structures a new gradient of water use from clean to grey. We envision an incremental watershed transformation in Islamberg over the next 20 years or more. By overlaying a new living water infrastructure over the existing religious structure in place, we enable the town to reinforce inhabitants’ mystic relationship with the natural world.
Through the addition of a new “sacred” infrastructure, Islamberg is being “re-centered” within th...
A Rural, Religious Front Street
Exploring Islamberg, a religious hamlet of ex-urban African Americans in Upstate New York, A Rura...
ARD (Landscape Mosque)
What is a mosque? ARD––ground, earth, or land––proposes to reimagine the urban mosque of Islamber...
The studio FutureCurrent: Imagining Indigenous Futurisms and Nascent Ecologies pushes the boundaries of existing paradigms of sustainability to envision new models for life on this planet rooted in practices that are both ancient and cutting edge. It works at the intersection of the urban and architectural scales and develops visionary proposals for the site in the present day, as well as generations into the future. It considers the deeper impacts of the climate crisis on Indigenous communities, as well as looks at ways in which to adapt, mitigate, and even roll back the effects of climate change through innovative and time-honored traditional practices, technologies, techniques, and emergent strategies.
A comprehensive studio description is available on the course page.
Students: Thomas Beck, Guohao Chen, Johane Clermont, Ethan Davis, Benjamin Fox, Qing Hou, Alyna Karachiwala, Jo He Lee, Jinseon Noh, Kaeli Streeter, Thanapon Wongsanguan
“New possibilities in a future that has been ‘re-wilded’ are endless, with the potential for micro-trade networks of locally sourced goods between communities, ecological territories dedicated to the benefit of wildlife, and designed agroforestry zones…”
“The proposal aims to design for future potentials of the site and reimagine the sustainable ways of living of the Schaghticoke First Nations People projected far into the future.”
beneath our feet
Beneath our feet asks us to think about the geological and fungal histories and networks that lay...
Poly-species Living Environments
Re : Wild
Indigenous communities have persevered in a way of life that is sustainable and attuned to the...
This project responds to the uneven distribution of water resources and water applications curren...
Above & Below
The proposal aims to design for future potentials of the site and reimagine the sustainable ways ...
The Lenape Ramapough Tribe is proposing the possibility of a small museum adjacent to the sacred territory of Split Rock, a very rural, solid granite ridge near the town of Millburn, New York. The project is intended as a physical symbol of the tribe’s presence, its history, and its traditions. The goal of the studio Split Rock: A Museum Portal to the Spirit World is to make the museum a portal, an entry point of transcendence, a gateway to the spirit world.
Students: Nikolas Bentel, Cara DePippo, Benjamin Diller-Schatz, Seungmin Han, Xiucong Han, Yong Yeob Kim, Jiafeng Li, Yiheng Lin, Roderick Macfarlane, Charlton McGlothlin, Mickaella Pharaon, Bisher Tabbaa
“Granite, Brick, Concrete" takes a hands-on approach in creating a museum and cultural center for the Ramapough Tribe of the Lenape Nation. The goal of the project was to ensure that all the manufacturing methods were realistic, all the materials were found on site, and that the local tribe could participate in the building process. The design research began with making arrowheads using different manufacturing techniques. Through this research, we decided to use three materials: granite, brick, and concrete. The construction process would begin with the excavation of the mountain side, exposing the mountain’s granite that would act as the exhibition space floor. The columns and ceiling would be a cast concrete structure created from the negative of clay formwork, which would be sourced near the Ramapough River. The façade is created using an L shaped brick that would be cast and fired on site. The original L shape brick design allows the façade to curve along the museum with periodic gaps to let in light and air.
the sacred earth since time immemorial. However, this connection has been challenged by the colonists, the mining and fossil fuel industries, and most recently, by the tribe’s neighbors and the popular media who have painted them with a bigoted, racist brush. Thus Split Rock Museum, located at the site of the sacred Split Rock in Mahwah, NJ, proposes a compound that celebrates and commemorates the culture and history—both cheerful and tragic—of the tribe, while negotiating the rugged and wooded terrain. The museum is composed of four structures: (1) The Marker, which marks the sacred site itself as well as the presence of the Ramapough Lenape; (2) Shelter of the Physical, which holds the historic everyday artifacts of the tribe; (3) Shelter of the Spiritual, which holds the ceremonial objects and artifacts, and (4) Shelter of the Sacred, which holds the sacred objects that only certain members of the tribe can access. Except for the Marker, all shelters are constructed with oak found on site, and canvas, each of which is constructed specific to its relationship to the sacred earth and the elements.
Between the Earth and Sky, Museum of Ramapough Native Arts
The Museum of Ramapough Native Indian Arts is a cultural center for artwork display, a monument o...
the Ramapough Culture Museum
Architecture elements of the Ramapough Culture Museum are distilled from the Wigwam, the native A...
Museum as a Spiritual Portal
The project is intended as a physical symbol of the Tribe’s presence, an entry point of transcend...
Cut & Cairn: Museum for the Ramapough Lenape Nation
The Ramapough Lenape Nation has lived in the hills of Northern Jersey since before the last Ice A...
Cearns and carefully placed granite rocks filled the landscape of Stag Hill, Mahwah for thousands...
Building on the work of previous studios and courses on Culebra and Vieques and the relationships developed over time with the local communities, the studio Caribbean Reconnections: From Plan to Implementation in Puerto Rico uses the interdisciplinary approach of the “joint studio” format to develop designs and planning strategies in response to issues of food, energy, and water sovereignty, waste disposal, resiliency, disaster management, education, job creation, and public space, among others. A particular focus is on water as nexus for the above issues. The studio also focuses on implementation considerations for both this current studio’s plans as well as projects developed previously, in close collaboration with our principal client, the Mujeres de Islas in Culebra.
Students: Willy Cao, Teonna Cooksey, Anays Gonzalez Sanchez, Jiageng Guo, Ryan Hansen, Maxim Kolbowski-Frampton, Estefania Serrano Soto, Katherin Sibel, Daniel Vanderhorst, Zhaoxiang Yun, Hanyin Zhang
Culebra faces unique challenges in affordable housing due to the tourism-fueled Airbnb market, high cost of importing materials, and the inconsistent ferry system. This project, Sovereign Living, proposes establishing a Community Land Trust to create a building system that starts in downtown Culebra and is adaptive and responsive to local material streams and community needs. A dispersed set of housing, commercial, and urban agricultural developments get built within underused lots. By partnering with non-profit organizations, businesses, and governmental entities, land is acquired through land transfer/donation, purchasing, and negotiating deals. Guidelines to develop include resilient construction methods, sustainable organization features, specificity of local materials like bamboo and sargassum brick, and recommendations for public programs that reflect surrounding urban contexts. The cluster theory approach allows us to continue densifying the urban core while incrementally spreading toward the lower-density neighborhoods. This method attracts investors and provides more equitable access to the economic market. To access multiple funding streams, we use a mixed-use development approach to gain eligibility to federal subsidies, philanthropic funding, and revenue generated from CLT programming. By developing a system of development that responds to the urban contexts, community needs, and local economy, a sovereign way of building and living is established.
The Ecological Research Center proposes a strategy for the reoccupation of an abandoned factory building and its surrounding landscape in Culebra. Aimed to build robust capacity in Culebra for ecological research and education, this project will be able to serve as a development engine for the island through promoting ecological tourism, improving its education system, and functioning as a pivot for a more diversified and sustainable local economy. This project recognizes the potential of promoting the development of the Culebra community through synthesizing ecological research, education, and other needs identified by local residents. The provision of gathering and storage spaces will diversify local residents’ daily activity options as well to provide emergency services in the event of climate or seismic hazardous events. Progressing from a fundamental objective of providing housing and laboratories for participants of research projects on and around the Culebra island, the Center also explores the possibility of improving the local education system by connecting researchers and the school-age population. Rather than a frozen plan, the proposal takes the opportunities identified with the Ecological Research Center to serve as a complex that is structurally flexible and that accommodates not only all the desires of its stakeholders but also different financial constraints. Responding to the high cost and long timeline needed for this project to be completed, a phasing plan is proposed that ensures the lowest financial burden on local government and the maximum viability of the building at each phase.
Oasis strategically furthers community resilience and challenges land boundaries in Culebra; prim...
Sargatopía: Sargassum-Based Restoration Economy
Sargassum is a pernicious genus of seaweed that is characterized by odorous methane-releasing blo...
Soil Regeneration and Land Reclamation for Culebra, PR
While lack of water defines the island of Culebra’s precarious condition, it is the land that pre...
For the Fringe Timber II: A Center for Earth Ethics studio, students design a satellite location for the Center for Earth Ethics beyond its headquarters at Union Theological Seminary, applying the values of the Northeast Farmers of Color Land Trust and using CLT as the primary building material. They begin by constructing a graphic narrative of Equivalents to establish values for their project. Then, each team chooses a site, and through an analysis of occupation and stewardship, students propose rituals for ways of life on the site, establishing an ideal rate of change and programmatic purpose. Students then design a tower (between 8 and 18 stories) and an enclosure (between 1 acre and 1 square mile). The architecture supports the cadence and scale of rituals, and actively participates in the generation of carbon equivalent values; it directly rejects racism in its response to resources and celebrates species-driven CLT. As our climate continues to transform, the new-normal will most likely be ever-changing, demanding the dismantling of long-entrenched linear systems and the establishment of intelligent and flexible reciprocal relationships.
Students: Alya Abourezk, Xuanyi Chen, Jonathan Chester, Osvaldo Delbrey, Novak Djogo, Gene Han, Ava Heckman, Farouk Kwaning, Yumeng Liu, Gustavo Lopez Mendoza, Yuchen Qiu, Allison Shahidi
The monetary value system has long reigned the way the world has operated. This project aims to explore other forms of value systems that could address the environmental value that has been neglected in the traditional monetary system. The proposed value system on this island is based on carbon footprint and uses this project as an experiment. The Davids Island is selected as our site because we think it serves as an accurate geographic metaphor of a testbed outside of the mainstream. The programs will be divided into two parts––labor and leisure. The labor part will include activities of agroforestry, which aims to reduce tension between agricultural land and forest land. The participants will earn ”carbon coins” that they can use on the island by working in the labor programs. To enjoy the leisure programs such as a spa, pool, or upgrade to a better room/food, they have to use the carbon coin to pay for the leisure. For example, the person working in the mushroom farm in the drawing earns carbon coins to upgrade the meal. The price of leisure activities will be based on the equivalent carbon emission. Imagine that as you work to reduce your carbon footprint, you’re able to level up and unlock better leisure. No matter the existing economic status of the participants, once they step on this island, their wealth will depend on their carbon offset. Through these experiences, the intention is to subconsciously educate the visitors with the proposed value system with a focus on environmental value. In the long term, we hope to transform people’s activities by this immersive experience.
Our project for the Center of Earth Ethics aims to propose a new way of living to achieve collaborative survival in a more-than-human Anthropocene. We intend to invite humans and the federally endangered Indiana bats as our two main clients because of their reversed and mirrored living patterns. After on-site research, we wish to reconnect with the Native Americans and the Shakers’ culture in Albany. We are inspired by how the Shakers hang most of their furniture on a strip that extends across the wall of every room in a building. We adopted the “suspension” because it’s both a maintenance process and respects the ground. It also echoes how the bats hang themselves below a surface. We decided to use the idea of the CLT wall to host the “suspension” which provides vertical surfaces to hang elements; it works as the primary structure in our project. We also wonder how it might extend into the exterior, interacting with the landscape—this idea inspired the design of our tower. Regarding materials, we learned from the Native Americans about the concept of using all of the parts of an object. For example, using leftover bark as shingles for the buildings’ exterior is a way of respecting nature.
Inspired by a monastic way of life, Monastic Timber roots itself into the land and projects the s...
As more carbon is released into the atmosphere and rising temperatures make arid climates more ex...
This design proposes a vertical town located at a high altitude in the Adirondack Mountains. The ...
Re-CLT: Recover, Relearn, Return
Considering the social, societal, financial, and material context, RE-CLT challenges buildings&rs...
This project is centered around creating a typology that supports structural experimentation with...
Oncuts and Offcuts
Only half of the carbon sequestered in a whole tree over the course of its lifetime remains seque...