Footnotes on Climate.jpg

FOOTNOTES ON CLIMATE

The urgency of climate change—its emerging, far-reaching effects on life on Earth—demands a matching urgency in thinking about how to address those effects architecturally, progressing existing work in areas like resiliency, adaptability, carbon footprints, materials use, and eco-friendliness. But such a moment also asks that we think more broadly about how we conceive of “climate” in the first place. As thinkers like Paul Edwards have noted, it is primarily through models, sensing technologies, visualizations, and collations of data that we have come to know climate—it is, in other words, a thing we assemble. Historical and epistemic, we shape it using inherited ideas about air, ocean, rock, ice, weather, and other environmental conditions that have long shaped our engagement with the natural world and each other. Knowing that climate is a constructed notion, how might we rethink it and its attendant implications for our broader understandings of the world and our ways of building and being in it?

This reading list is offered not as a survey of the field or even a syllabus of sorts, but as a collection of documents (historical and contemporary, scholarly and speculative, governmental and activist, scientific and science-fictive) that ask us, each in its own way, to consider again how climate intersects with architectural ideas. These entries are largely drawn from the footnotes of our recently published collection of essays titled Climates: Architecture and the Planetary Imaginary, and are loosely categorized according to a set of themes that emerged in the process of editing the book. The wide-ranging intelligence of the book’s contributors—and their still further-ranging interests in the histories, theories, and practices that confront the problem of climate—is gathered here in the form of footnotes, offered in anticipation of thoughts, conversations, and texts yet to come.

1
Earths

1. Ray Bradbury, The Martian Chronicles (1950; repr., New York: Simon & Schuster, 2012). 1

2. Neil Brenner, ed., Implosions/Explosions: Towards a Study of Planetary Urbanization (Berlin: Jovis, 2014). 2

3. Dipesh Chakrabarty, “The Climate of History: Four Theses,” Critical Inquiry, vol. 35, no. 2 (Winter 2009): 197–222. 3

4. Paul J. Crutzen and Eugene F. Stoermer, “The ‘Anthropocene,’” The International Geosphere–Biosphere Programme (IGBP) Global Change Newsletter 41 (May 2000): 17–18. 4

5. Vittoria Di Palma, Wasteland: A History (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2014). 5

6. Earth Charter Commission, “Earth Charter,” 2000. 6

7. Paul N. Edwards, A Vast Machine: Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2013). 7

8. Pope Francis, Encyclical Letter Laudato Si’ of the Holy Father Francis on Care for Our Common Home (The Holy See: Vatican Press, 2015). 8

9. James Hansen, Testimony Before the U.S. House Energy Committee, 1988. 9

10. Matthias Heymann, “The Evolution of Climate Ideas and Knowledge,” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, vol. 1, issue 4 (July/Aug 2010): 581–597. 10

11. Mike Hulme, Why We Disagree About Climate Change: Understanding Controversy, Inaction, and Opportunity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009). 11

12. Paul James and Manfred B. Steger, “Levels of Subjective Globalization: Ideologies, Imaginaries, Ontologies,” Perspectives on Global Development and Technology 12 (2013): 17–40.12

13. Bruno Latour, An Inquiry into Modes of Existence: An Anthropology of the Moderns, trans. Catherine Porter (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013).13

14. Bruno Latour, “Why Has Critique Run Out of Steam? From Matters of Fact to Matters of Concern,” Critical Inquiry, vol. 30, no. 2 (Winter 2004): 225–248.14

15. James Lovelock, The Revenge of Gaia: Earth’s Climate Crisis and the Fate of Humanity (New York: Basic Books, 2007).15

16. Reinhold Martin, “Horizons of Thought,” in Mediators: Aesthetics, Politics, and the City (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2014), 99–120. 16

17. W. Patrick McCray, The Visioneers: How a Group of Elite Scientists Pursued Space Colonies, Nanotechnologies, and a Limitless Future (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013). 17

18. Bill McKibben, “Global Warming’s Terrifying New Math,” Rolling Stone, July 19, 2012. 18

19. Fred Scharmen, “The High Frontier, the Megastructure, and the Big Dumb Object,” paper presented at the 101st ACSA Annual Meeting, San Francisco, 2013, http://apps.acsa-arch.org/resources/proceedings/indexsearch.aspx?txtKeyword1=%22Scharmen%2C+Fred%22&ddField1=1.19

20. Gayatri Spivak, “Imperative to Reimagine the Planet,” in An Aesthetic Education in the Era of Globalization (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013), 335–350. 20

21. Jennifer Wenzel, “Planet vs. Globe,” English Language Notes, vol. 52, no. 1 (October 2014): 19–30.21

22. Kim Stanley Robinson, the Mars Trilogy: Red Mars, Green Mars, Blue Mars (New York: Bantam Spectra, 1993–1996).22

23. Raymond Williams, The Country and the City (New York: Oxford University Press, 1973).23

24. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), “Rio Declaration on Environment and Development,” 1992. 24

  1. Ray Bradbury, The Martian Chronicles (1950; repr., New York: Simon & Schuster, 2012).
    Originally published in 1950, this haunting collection of short stories forms a loose narrative arc relating the “future history” of the human colonization of Mars. Dipping in and out of allegory, Bradbury uses his interplanetary framing to explore questions about human nature, colonialism, racism, immigration, and identity. Like much of his work, the Chronicles are lit with nostalgia for small-town life in the interwar American Midwest—which in this case has the curious effect of domesticating Mars, dissolving familiar and alien into the same unheimlich universe in which no one is quite at home.
  2. Neil Brenner, ed., Implosions/Explosions: Towards a Study of Planetary Urbanization (Berlin: Jovis, 2014).
  3. Dipesh Chakrabarty, “The Climate of History: Four Theses,” Critical Inquiry, vol. 35, no. 2 (Winter 2009): 197–222.
    Chakrabarty’s insistence that the global history of capitalism should be put in conversation with the species history of humans—countering centuries of Enlightenment thought that saw “the social” and “the natural” as separate spheres of science—has made this an essential text for those thinking about how the humanities might begin to respond to climate change, particularly as we learn to craft new forms of history that take account of our ongoing planetary transformations.
  4. Paul J. Crutzen and Eugene F. Stoermer, “The ‘Anthropocene,’” The International Geosphere–Biosphere Programme (IGBP) Global Change Newsletter 41 (May 2000): 17–18.
    This text was the first major publication of the idea that humanity has exited the Holocene—the geological epoch of relative climatic stability that began some 12,000 years ago—and entered a time in which humankind now acts as a geological force.

  5. Vittoria Di Palma, Wasteland: A History (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2014).
  6. Earth Charter Commission, “Earth Charter,” 2000.
  7. Paul N. Edwards, A Vast Machine: Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2013).
  8. Pope Francis, Encyclical Letter Laudato Si’ of the Holy Father Francis on Care for Our Common Home (The Holy See: Vatican Press, 2015).
  9. James Hansen, Testimony Before the U.S. House Energy Committee, 1988.
    Now considered a landmark in the history of public recognition of global warming, Hansen’s testimony argued that there was a “high degree of confidence” that there is a “cause and effect relationship” between global temperatures and greenhouse gases. In recent years, this episode has come to stand as an indication of how fraught and how slow the work of changing the politics around emissions can be.

  10. Matthias Heymann, “The Evolution of Climate Ideas and Knowledge,” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, vol. 1, issue 4 (July/Aug 2010): 581–597.
  11. Mike Hulme, Why We Disagree About Climate Change: Understanding Controversy, Inaction, and Opportunity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009).
  12. Paul James and Manfred B. Steger, “Levels of Subjective Globalization: Ideologies, Imaginaries, Ontologies,” Perspectives on Global Development and Technology 12 (2013): 17–40.
  13. Bruno Latour, An Inquiry into Modes of Existence: An Anthropology of the Moderns, trans. Catherine Porter (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013).
  14. Bruno Latour, “Why Has Critique Run Out of Steam? From Matters of Fact to Matters of Concern,” Critical Inquiry, vol. 30, no. 2 (Winter 2004): 225–248.
  15. James Lovelock, The Revenge of Gaia: Earth’s Climate Crisis and the Fate of Humanity (New York: Basic Books, 2007).
  16. Reinhold Martin, “Horizons of Thought,” in Mediators: Aesthetics, Politics, and the City (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2014), 99–120.
  17. W. Patrick McCray, The Visioneers: How a Group of Elite Scientists Pursued Space Colonies, Nanotechnologies, and a Limitless Future (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013).
  18. Bill McKibben, “Global Warming’s Terrifying New Math,” Rolling Stone, July 19, 2012.
    Published in the summer leading up to the 2012 US presidential election, this essay garnered major popular attention and remains a reference in popular discourse on climate change. Seeking to position the fossil fuel industry as a moral enemy against which a worldwide climate protest movement can form, McKibben frames the stakes of the climate crisis around “three simple numbers” that link the profit motive with massive environmental disaster: the 2 degrees Celsius planetary “warming limit”; the 565 gigaton “carbon budget” that can be burned without exceeding that limit; and the 2,795 gigatons of carbon then-available in companies’ and governments’ fossil fuel reserves.
  19. Fred Scharmen, “The High Frontier, the Megastructure, and the Big Dumb Object,” paper presented at the 101st ACSA Annual Meeting, San Francisco, 2013, link.
  20. Gayatri Spivak, “Imperative to Reimagine the Planet,” in An Aesthetic Education in the Era of Globalization (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013), 335–350.
    Unsettling contemporary notions of “globalization,” Spivak asserts the planetary as a new paradigm through which to consider the complex relationships that comprise human life on Earth. Subjectivity, she writes, is more productively seen as a “planetary accident,” in which the power relations embedded in narratives of the global are supplanted by a “para galactic alterity.” In such an understanding, figures like the refugee and the migrant might not be consigned to the outside of shifting national borders, but instead become members of a radically inclusive sphere where caregiving and custodianship extend between subjects, species, and the planet itself.
  21. Jennifer Wenzel, “Planet vs. Globe,” English Language Notes, vol. 52, no. 1 (October 2014): 19–30.
  22. Kim Stanley Robinson, the Mars Trilogy: Red Mars, Green Mars, Blue Mars (New York: Bantam Spectra, 1993–1996).
  23. Raymond Williams, The Country and the City (New York: Oxford University Press, 1973).
  24. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), “Rio Declaration on Environment and Development,” 1992.
    A seminal text for sustainable development on the international scale, the Rio Declaration, created at the 1992 UN Earth Summit, laid out twenty-seven key principles intended to guide signatory nations’ exploitation of natural resources with a sensitivity to environmental protection and the well-being of “present and future generations.” Significantly, the Declaration acknowledged the alleviation of poverty and the recognition of environmentally vulnerable countries as integral to sustainable development, as well as the need for environmental legislation and public participation in environmental law-making and awareness.
2
Political Ecologies

1. Anil Agarwal and Sunita Narain, Global Warming in an Unequal World: A Case of Environmental Colonialism (New Delhi: Centre for Science and Environment, 1991). 1

2. Wolfgang Behringer, A Cultural History of Climate (Cambridge: Polity, 2009).2

3. Jane Bennett, Vibrant Matter: A Political Ecology of Things (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010). 3

4. Christophe Bonneuil and Jean-Baptiste Fressoz, The Shock of the Anthropocene (New York: Verso, 2016).4

5. Hans Günter Brauch, Úrsula Oswald Spring, et al., eds., Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health, and Water Security Concepts (Berlin: Springer, 2009).5

6. Robert Bullard, Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class, and Environmental Quality (Boulder: Westview Press, 1990). 6

7. Denis E. Cosgrove, Apollo’s Eye: A Cartographic Genealogy of the Earth in the Western Imagination (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001). 7

8. Alex de Waal, “Sudan, the Sahel, the Sahara: The 99% Principle,” Les Dossiers du CERI 3 (Summer 2013).8

9. Jodi Dean, “The Anamorphic Politics of Climate Change,” e-flux journal 69 (January 2016). 9

10. Roberto Esposito, Bíos: Biopolitics and Philosophy, trans. Timothy C. Campbell (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008).10

11. Jennifer Gabrys, “Programming Environments: Environmentality and Citizen Sensing in the Smart City,” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, vol. 32, no. 1 (2014): 30–48.11

12. Peter Galison and Caroline Jones, “Unknown Quantities,” Artforum, vol. 49, no. 3 (November 2010): 49–51.12

13. Naomi Klein, This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2014).13

14. Elizabeth Kolbert, The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History (New York: Picador, 2015).14

15. Adrian Lahoud, “Nomos and Cosmos,” e-flux journal 65: SUPERCOMMUNITY (May/Aug 2015).15

16. Bruno Latour, “From Realpolitik to Dingpolitik,” in Making Things Public: Atmospheres of Democracy, ed. Bruno Latour and Peter Weibel (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005).16

17. Curtis Mayfield, “Underground,” on Roots, Capitol Records, 1971. 17

18. Brett Milligan, “Landscape Migration,” Places Journal (June 2015).18

19. Timothy Mitchell, Carbon Democracy: Political Power in the Age of Oil (New York: Verso, 2011). 19

20. Jason W. Moore, Capitalism in the Web of Life: Ecology and the Accumulation of Capital (New York: Verso, 2015). 20

21. Timothy Morton, Hyperobjects: Philosophy and Ecology after the End of the World (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2013).21

22. Rob Nixon, Slow Violence and the Environmentalism of the Poor (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011).22

23. Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway, The Collapse of Western Civilization: A View from the Future (New York: Columbia University Press, 2014).23

24. Christian Parenti, Tropic of Chaos: Climate Change and the New Geography of Violence (New York: Nation Books, 2012).24

25. Chris Reed and Nina-Marie Lister, Projective Ecologies (New York: Harvard University GSD and Actar Publishers, 2014).25

26. Birgit Schneider and Thomas Nocke, eds., Image Politics of Climate Change: Visualizations, Imaginations, Documentations (Bielefeld, Germany: Transcript-Verlag, 2014).
26

27. Richard Sennett, “Why Climate Change Should Signal the End of the City-State,” the Guardian, October 9, 2014.27

28. Rebecca Solnit, “Are We Missing the Big Picture on Climate Change?” New York Times Magazine, December 2, 2014.28

29. Eyal Weizman and Fazal Sheikh, The Conflict Shoreline: Colonialism as Climate Change in the Negev Desert (Gottingen: Steidl in association with Cabinet Books, 2015).29

30. Paige West, Conservation is our Government Now: The Politics of Ecology in Papua New Guinea (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006).30

  1. Anil Agarwal and Sunita Narain, Global Warming in an Unequal World: A Case of Environmental Colonialism (New Delhi: Centre for Science and Environment, 1991).
    Agarwal and Narain’s text observes that the historical culpability for global warming sits primarily with the Global North—and moreover, that the “manner in which the global warming debate is being carried out is only sharpening and deepening the North–South divide.” The authors insist that in planning for the future, careful attention should be paid to whose futures (and presents) are being secured, taking account of the structural violence of globalism. In light of the Indian and Chinese economies’ massive carbon-based expansions over the intervening twenty-five years (as they’ve joined the US and Russia as the top four total emitters), this text asks us to imagine again what climate justice, and an appropriate distribution of non-renewable energy, might mean today.
  2. Wolfgang Behringer, A Cultural History of Climate (Cambridge: Polity, 2009).
  3. Jane Bennett, Vibrant Matter: A Political Ecology of Things (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010).
    Vibrant Matter asks for a recognition of earthly “things” within the realm of political theory, expanding on the work of other thinkers like Bruno Latour to see how the histories and capacities of our own society are imbricated with the materiality of the world around us. For Bennett, “The ethical task at hand is to cultivate the ability to discern nonhuman vitality, to become perceptually open to it.”
  4. Christophe Bonneuil and Jean-Baptiste Fressoz, The Shock of the Anthropocene (New York: Verso, 2016).
  5. Hans Günter Brauch, Úrsula Oswald Spring, et al., eds., Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health, and Water Security Concepts (Berlin: Springer, 2009).
  6. Robert Bullard, Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class, and Environmental Quality (Boulder: Westview Press, 1990).
  7. Denis E. Cosgrove, Apollo’s Eye: A Cartographic Genealogy of the Earth in the Western Imagination (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001).
  8. Alex de Waal, “Sudan, the Sahel, the Sahara: The 99% Principle,” Les Dossiers du CERI 3 (Summer 2013).
  9. Jodi Dean, “The Anamorphic Politics of Climate Change,” e-flux journal 69 (January 2016).
  10. Roberto Esposito, Bíos: Biopolitics and Philosophy, trans. Timothy C. Campbell (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008).
  11. Jennifer Gabrys, “Programming Environments: Environmentality and Citizen Sensing in the Smart City,” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, vol. 32, no. 1 (2014): 30–48.
  12. Peter Galison and Caroline Jones, “Unknown Quantities,” Artforum, vol. 49, no. 3 (November 2010): 49–51.
  13. Naomi Klein, This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2014).
  14. Elizabeth Kolbert, The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History (New York: Picador, 2015).
  15. Adrian Lahoud, “Nomos and Cosmos,” e-flux journal 65: SUPERCOMMUNITY (May/Aug 2015).
  16. Bruno Latour, “From Realpolitik to Dingpolitik,” in Making Things Public: Atmospheres of Democracy, ed. Bruno Latour and Peter Weibel (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005).
  17. Curtis Mayfield, “Underground,” on Roots, Capitol Records, 1971.
    Perhaps the most soulful harbinger of the Anthropocene, Mayfield’s “Underground” brings together racial politics with a keen sense of environmental consciousness. The singer’s recognition that “there is now pollution in every natural mineral and material taken from the Earth” laments a world that has been altered by human intervention at the planetary scale—but that lament also allows him to imagine an underground society in which race is no longer a consequential part of human relations (“there’ll be no light, so there can be no sight … they’ll all turn black so who’s to know”).
  18. Brett Milligan, “Landscape Migration,” Places Journal (June 2015), link.
  19. Timothy Mitchell, Carbon Democracy: Political Power in the Age of Oil (New York: Verso, 2011).
    Deftly weaving together decades of resource history in the Middle East—and by extension the Western European nations that colonized the region in order to consume and control its oil supply—Mitchell demonstrates how the production processes that give rise to carbon energy have engendered the specific forms of governance we call “democracy” and “the economy.” Tracing this history, and the violent context it has shaped, to the present day, Mitchell asserts that the form of global democracy our age of oil has created is ill-equipped to address its ensuing climatic conditions.
  20. Jason W. Moore, Capitalism in the Web of Life: Ecology and the Accumulation of Capital (New York: Verso, 2015).
    Joining the discourses of environmental history, the history of capitalism, and Marxist thought, Moore explains how our constructions of ecology and nature are inextricable from a capitalist reliance on natural resources. Positing that it is “cheap nature”—labor power, food, energy, and raw materials—that capitalism has produced, Moore supplants “Anthropocene” with “Capitalocene” as the preeminent paradigm of our contemporary global condition. Ultimately, he argues for a more complex understanding of ecology, one that includes issues of class and social power within the web of life.
  21. Timothy Morton, Hyperobjects: Philosophy and Ecology after the End of the World (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2013).
  22. Rob Nixon, Slow Violence and the Environmentalism of the Poor (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011).
  23. Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway, The Collapse of Western Civilization: A View from the Future (New York: Columbia University Press, 2014).
  24. Christian Parenti, Tropic of Chaos: Climate Change and the New Geography of Violence (New York: Nation Books, 2012).
  25. Chris Reed and Nina-Marie Lister, Projective Ecologies (New York: Harvard University GSD and Actar Publishers, 2014).
  26. Birgit Schneider and Thomas Nocke, eds., Image Politics of Climate Change: Visualizations, Imaginations, Documentations (Bielefeld, Germany: Transcript-Verlag, 2014).

  27. Richard Sennett, “Why Climate Change Should Signal the End of the City-State,” the Guardian, October 9, 2014.
  28. Rebecca Solnit, “Are We Missing the Big Picture on Climate Change?” New York Times Magazine, December 2, 2014.
  29. Eyal Weizman and Fazal Sheikh, The Conflict Shoreline: Colonialism as Climate Change in the Negev Desert (Gottingen: Steidl in association with Cabinet Books, 2015).
  30. Paige West, Conservation is our Government Now: The Politics of Ecology in Papua New Guinea (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006).
3
Corporealities

1. Emily Apter, “Planetary Dysphoria,” Third Text, vol. 27, no. 1 (January 2013): 131–140. 1

2. J. G. Ballard, The Drowned World (1962; repr., New York: Liveright, 2013). 2

3. Stan Cox, Losing Our Cool: Uncomfortable Truths About Our Air-Conditioned World (and Finding New Ways to Get Through the Summer) (New York: The New Press, 2012). 3

4. Heidi Cullen, The Weather of the Future: Heat Waves, Extreme Storms, and Other Scenes from a Climate-Changed Planet (New York: Harper Perennial, 2011).4

5. Gillen D’Arcy Wood, Tambora: The Eruption That Changed the World (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014).5

6. Heather Davis, “Toxic Progeny: The Plastisphere and Other Queer Futures,” Philosophia, vol. 5, no. 2 (Summer 2015): 231–250. 6

7. Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, “How Do You Make Yourself a Body Without Organs?” in 8A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia8, trans. Brian Massumi (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987).
7

8. Mary Douglas, Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo (New York: Praeger, 1966).8

9. Cherian George, Singapore: The Air-Conditioned Nation, Essays on the Politics of Comfort and Control, 1990–2000 (Singapore: Landmark Books, 2000).9

10. Richard Grusin, ed., The Nonhuman Turn (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2015).10

11. Aldo Leopold, A Sand County Almanac, and Sketches Here and There (1949; repr. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987). 11

12. Reza Negarestani, Cyclonopedia: Complicity with Anonymous Materials (Victoria, Australia: Re.press, 2008).
12

13. Jussi Parikka, A Geology of Media (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2015). 13

14. Philippe Rahm, Météorologie des sentiments (Paris: Les Petits Matins, 2015).14

15. Peter Sloterdijk, the Spheres Trilogy: Bubbles, Globes, Foams, trans. Wieland Hoban (Los Angeles: Semiotext(e), 2011–2016).15

16. Peter Sloterdijk, Terror from the Air, trans. Amy Patton and Steve Corcoran (Los Angeles: Semiotext(e), 2009). 16

17. Julianna Spahr, This Connection of Everyone With Lungs (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005).17

18. Anna Lowenhaupt Tsing, The Mushroom at the End of the World: On the Possibility of Life in Capitalist Ruins (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015). 18

  1. Emily Apter, “Planetary Dysphoria,” Third Text, vol. 27, no. 1 (January 2013): 131–140.
  2. J. G. Ballard, The Drowned World (1962; repr., New York: Liveright, 2013).
  3. Stan Cox, Losing Our Cool: Uncomfortable Truths About Our Air-Conditioned World (and Finding New Ways to Get Through the Summer) (New York: The New Press, 2012).
  4. Heidi Cullen, The Weather of the Future: Heat Waves, Extreme Storms, and Other Scenes from a Climate-Changed Planet (New York: Harper Perennial, 2011).
  5. Gillen D’Arcy Wood, Tambora: The Eruption That Changed the World (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014).
  6. Heather Davis, “Toxic Progeny: The Plastisphere and Other Queer Futures,” Philosophia, vol. 5, no. 2 (Summer 2015): 231–250.
    In a wonderful work of material thinking, Heather Davis queers plastic and its relationship to the body. Noting the polymer’s infiltration into human bodies and the bodies of other species, as well as their mutation of them, Davis asks if we might use queer theory to imagine a future that is neither a continuation of normative heterosexual family life, nor a vision of environmental apocalypse.
  7. Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, “How Do You Make Yourself a Body Without Organs?” in 8A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia8, trans. Brian Massumi (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987).

  8. Mary Douglas, Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo (New York: Praeger, 1966).
  9. Cherian George, Singapore: The Air-Conditioned Nation, Essays on the Politics of Comfort and Control, 1990–2000 (Singapore: Landmark Books, 2000).
  10. Richard Grusin, ed., The Nonhuman Turn (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2015).
  11. Aldo Leopold, A Sand County Almanac, and Sketches Here and There (1949; repr. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987).
    Highly influential for the modern conservation movement and the field of ecology, this book charts Leopold’s notion of a “land ethic”—a mutually beneficial relationship between people and the natural environment centered on stewarding biodiversity rather than cultivating profit—through essays grounded in his own experiences on his Wisconsin farm. Revisiting the work today provides a compelling example of how to understand and engage the planetary through the local.
  12. Reza Negarestani, Cyclonopedia: Complicity with Anonymous Materials (Victoria, Australia: Re.press, 2008).

  13. Jussi Parikka, A Geology of Media (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2015).
  14. Philippe Rahm, Météorologie des sentiments (Paris: Les Petits Matins, 2015).
  15. Peter Sloterdijk, the Spheres Trilogy: Bubbles, Globes, Foams, trans. Wieland Hoban (Los Angeles: Semiotext(e), 2011–2016).
  16. Peter Sloterdijk, Terror from the Air, trans. Amy Patton and Steve Corcoran (Los Angeles: Semiotext(e), 2009).
    For Sloterdijk, modernity descended on the human body on April 22, 1915, when German troops sent a cloud of chlorine gas over the battlefields of Ypres—in that moment, making air “explicit” and marking a shift from individual combat to environmental warfare. The history of the twentieth century, then, might be seen as a history of atmospheres, one in which it becomes ever more urgent to understand our impacts within the life support system that we too-often naturalize as our exterior environment.

  17. Julianna Spahr, This Connection of Everyone With Lungs (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005).
  18. Anna Lowenhaupt Tsing, The Mushroom at the End of the World: On the Possibility of Life in Capitalist Ruins (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015).
    This is a book about the Matsutake mushroom—the world’s most valuable fungus. Through various episodes about humans and this “companion species,” Tsing narrates the commodity chain of the Matsutake from industrial forests in the US to forager villages within national parks, and from the tables of mushroom connoisseurs to the paths of nature guides. In so doing, she illustrates the overlap of social and environmental ecologies and provides a case study in what she calls “living in capitalist ruins.”
4
Enclosures

1. Stan Allen and Marc McQuade, eds., Landform Building: Architecture's New Terrain (Baden: Lars Müller Publishers, 2011).1

2. Peder Anker, From Bauhaus to Ecohouse: A History of Ecological Design (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2010).2

3. Reyner Banham, The Architecture of the Well-Tempered Environment (London: The Architectural Press, 1969; repr. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984). 3

4. Ulrich Beck, Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity (London: Sage Publishing, 1992).4

5. Siegfried Ebeling, Space as Membrane, trans. Pamela Johnston and Anna Kathryn Schoefert (London: Architectural Association Publications, 2010).
5

6. Billie Faircloth, Plastics Now: On Architecture’s Relationship to a Continuously Emerging Material (New York: Routledge, 2015).6

7. Buckminster Fuller, Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth (1969; repr. Baden: Lars Müller Publishers, 2008).
7

8. David Gissen, Manhattan Atmospheres: Architecture, the Interior Environment, and Urban Crisis (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2014).8

9. Sabine Höhler, Spaceship Earth in the Environmental Age, 1960–1990 (London: Pickering and Chatto, 2015).
9

10. Catherine Ingraham, Architecture, Animal, Human: The Asymmetrical Condition (London: Routledge, 2006).10

11. Janette Kim and Erik Carver, The Underdome Guide to Energy Reform (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2015).11

12. Laura Kurgan, Close-Up at a Distance: Mapping, Technology, and Politics (New York: Zone Books, 2013). 12

13. Lucy R. Lippard, Undermining: A Wild Ride Through Land Use, Politics, and Art in the Changing West (New York: The New Press, 2014).13

14. Kiel Moe, Convergence: An Architectural Agenda for Energy (London: Routledge, 2013).14

15. Mohsen Mostafavi and Gareth Doherty, Ecological Urbanism (Baden: Lars Müller Publishers, 2010). 15


16. Felicity D. Scott, Outlaw Territories: Environments of Insecurity/Architectures of Counterinsurgency (New York: Zone Books, 2016).16

17. Peter Sloterdijk, In the World Interior of Capital: Towards a Philosophical Theory of Globalization, trans. Wieland Hoban (Cambridge: Polity, 2013).17

18. Isabelle Stengers, In Catastrophic Times: Resisting the Coming Barbarism, trans. Andrew Goffey (Ann Arbor: Open Humanities Press, 2015).18

19. Paulo Tavares, “General Essay on Air: Probes into the Atmospheric Conditions of Liberal Democracy,” 2008, http://www.paulotavares.net/air. 19

20. Arjen Oosterman, et al., eds., Volume 37: Is This Not a Pipe? (2013).20

21. WORKac, 49 Cities (2009; repr. New York: Inventory Press, 2016).21

  1. Stan Allen and Marc McQuade, eds., Landform Building: Architecture's New Terrain (Baden: Lars Müller Publishers, 2011).
  2. Peder Anker, From Bauhaus to Ecohouse: A History of Ecological Design (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2010).
  3. Reyner Banham, The Architecture of the Well-Tempered Environment (London: The Architectural Press, 1969; repr. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984).
    The “mechanicals” of a building—the ducts and pipes that keep it climatized—can say as much about a building as its exterior expression. Sitting somewhere between Banham’s desire to rewrite the canon of modernism and to celebrate the “gizmology” of off-grid cultures and countercultures, The Architecture of the Well-Tempered Environment is a playful but incisive look at architectural climates before the entrance of the mechanical expression of High-Tech architecture or the moral calculus of sustainability.
  4. Ulrich Beck, Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity (London: Sage Publishing, 1992).
  5. Siegfried Ebeling, Space as Membrane, trans. Pamela Johnston and Anna Kathryn Schoefert (London: Architectural Association Publications, 2010).

  6. Billie Faircloth, Plastics Now: On Architecture’s Relationship to a Continuously Emerging Material (New York: Routledge, 2015).
  7. Buckminster Fuller, Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth (1969; repr. Baden: Lars Müller Publishers, 2008).

  8. David Gissen, Manhattan Atmospheres: Architecture, the Interior Environment, and Urban Crisis (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2014).
  9. Sabine Höhler, Spaceship Earth in the Environmental Age, 1960–1990 (London: Pickering and Chatto, 2015).

  10. Catherine Ingraham, Architecture, Animal, Human: The Asymmetrical Condition (London: Routledge, 2006).
  11. Janette Kim and Erik Carver, The Underdome Guide to Energy Reform (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2015).
  12. Laura Kurgan, Close-Up at a Distance: Mapping, Technology, and Politics (New York: Zone Books, 2013).
    Applying architectural thinking to the politics of global representation, Kurgan examines how spatial technologies such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) and geographic information systems (GIS) inflect and bias images of our planet, and therefore the ways we understand the world at a massive scale. Demonstrating how maps are subjective and interpreted representations, she asks how these new technologies can be used to render legible environmental transformations as well as their political and cultural repercussions.
  13. Lucy R. Lippard, Undermining: A Wild Ride Through Land Use, Politics, and Art in the Changing West (New York: The New Press, 2014).
  14. Kiel Moe, Convergence: An Architectural Agenda for Energy (London: Routledge, 2013).
  15. Mohsen Mostafavi and Gareth Doherty, Ecological Urbanism (Baden: Lars Müller Publishers, 2010).
    Ecological Urbanism is one of the more extensive compilations on how cities and ecologies might be perceived as systems-based networks of material and social resources. It is also evidence of a larger architectural turn toward thinking on the scale of landscape that occurred across the 1990s and early 2000s.
  16. 
Felicity D. Scott, Outlaw Territories: Environments of Insecurity/Architectures of Counterinsurgency (New York: Zone Books, 2016).
  17. Peter Sloterdijk, In the World Interior of Capital: Towards a Philosophical Theory of Globalization, trans. Wieland Hoban (Cambridge: Polity, 2013).
  18. Isabelle Stengers, In Catastrophic Times: Resisting the Coming Barbarism, trans. Andrew Goffey (Ann Arbor: Open Humanities Press, 2015).
  19. Paulo Tavares, “General Essay on Air: Probes into the Atmospheric Conditions of Liberal Democracy,” 2008, http://www.paulotavares.net/air.
    This website-as-essay assembles video clips, interviews, and Tavares’s own writings in an episodic rumination on air. Culling remarks from the floor of the House of Commons, air quality legislation, descriptions of the ventilation systems of Guantanamo Bay, accounts of atmospheric laboratory facilities, and theoretical texts by Judith Butler, Peter Sloterdijk, and others, the evidentiary richness of Tavares’s “general essay” illustrates the historical and political import of enclosing climate.
  20. Arjen Oosterman, et al., eds., Volume 37: Is This Not a Pipe? (2013).
  21. WORKac, 49 Cities (2009; repr. New York: Inventory Press, 2016).
5
Colophon

Footnotes on Climate is a project of the Avery Review and Columbia Books on Architecture and the City, issued on the occasion of the 15th International Architecture Exhibition of the Venice Biennale, May 2016.

Editor
James Graham

Managing Editor
Caitlin Blanchfield

Contributing Editors
Alissa Anderson
Jordan H. Carver
Jacob Moore

Designers
Neil Donnelly
Sean Yendrys

Printing and Binding
die Keure, Bruges, Belgium

The Avery Review
A digital periodical of critical essays on architecture
www.averyreview.com

Columbia Books on Architecture and the City
An imprint of the Graduate School of Architecture, Planning, and Preservation
Columbia University
407 Avery Hall
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arch.columbia.edu/books

Special thanks to Dean Amale Andraos, Janet Reyes, Steffen Boddeker, Gabrielle Printz, Jesse Seegers, Manuela Lucà-Dazio, and Lars Müller.